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Thursday, June 15, 2006

ἐπιτιμάω - Part III

So far in this series on figuring out the meaning of πιτιμάω, I’ve talked about two words in Koine for telling someone not to do something, πιτιμάω and διαστέλλομαι. There are, of course, also words for telling someone to act. In this post I’ll look at some of them.

The relevance of this apparent digression is that it is always the case that part of the meaning of any word, πιτιμάω included, is provided by the contrast with the meanings of other words the speaker could have chosen to use but didn’t.

It should come as no surprise that in addition to words specialized for telling people not to act, there are plenty of words for telling people to act. They include: παραγγέλλω, κελεύω, τάσσω, διατάσσω, πιτάσσω, προστάσσω, συντάσσω, and ντέλλομαι. And let us not forget just plain λέγω. Because there are so many, I’m not going to fully analyze all of them. But I will focus on the important ones, the ones that occur a lot.

Let me start with the most general word παραγγέλλω. It is clear from the thirty times it is used in the NT that it is a general word. It can be used to tell someone to act in neutral situations, as in Matt. 15:35 or 2Thess. 3:10. (Again, all translations are GNB)

Matt. 15:35

35 και παραγγειλας τω οχλω αναπεσειν επι την γην

35 So Jesus ordered the crowd to sit down on the ground.

2Thess. 3:10

10 και γαρ οτε ημεν προς υμας τουτο παρηγγελλομεν υμιν οτι ει τις ου θελει εργαζεσθαι μηδε εσθιετω

10 While we were with you, we used to tell you, "Whoever refuses to work is not allowed to eat."

It can be used to forbid action, as in Luke 8:56.

Luke 8:56

56 και εξεστησαν οι γονεις αυτης ο δε παρηγγειλεν αυτοις μηδενι ειπειν το γεγονος

56 Her parents were astounded, but Jesus commanded them not to tell anyone what had happened.

And it can be used of officials issuing orders, as in Acts 23:22.

Acts 23:22

22 ο μεν ουν χιλιαρχος απελυσεν τον νεανισκον παραγγειλας μηδενι εκλαλησαι οτι ταυτα ενεφανισας προς με

22 The commander said, "Don't tell anyone that you have reported this to me." And he sent the young man away.

Since παραγγέλλω can be used to forbid an action, it overlaps with πιτιμάω and διαστέλλομαι. The fact that one has a rather free choice between the general word or one of these specific words is shown by the verse in Mark parallel to Luke 8:56.

Mark 5:43

43 και διεστειλατο αυτοις πολλα ινα μηδεις γνοι τουτο και ειπεν δοθηναι αυτη φαγειν

43 But Jesus gave them strict orders not to tell anyone, and he said, “Give her something to eat.”

Luke 8:56

56 και εξεστησαν οι γονεις αυτης ο δε παρηγγειλεν αυτοις μηδενι ειπειν το γεγονος

56 Her parents were astounded, but Jesus commanded them not to tell anyone what had happened.

What this means is that if you use πιτιμάω or διαστέλλομαι, you are emphasizing the fact that the order is negative. If you use the general word παραγγέλλω, then you are simply stating that someone told someone to do (or not do) something.

Linguists have a whole theory about this. It’s called markedness, but it’s a long explanation and would be too much of a tangent to discuss at this point. And we’ll see another instance of markedness with the next word.

After παραγγέλλω, the next most common word in the NT for telling people to do things is κελεύω. It appears 25 times. κελεύω differs from παραγγέλλω in one significant way. The person doing the ordering is either a government official or a military officer, i.e., an authority, for example Matt. 27:58.

Matt. 27:58

58 ουτος προσελθων τω πιλατω ητησατο το σωμα του ιησου τοτε ο πιλατος εκελευσεν αποδοθηναι

58 He went into the presence of Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Pilate gave orders for the body to be given to Joseph.

In other words, if you want to emphasize that the order has official authority, then you use κελεύω. You can describe an order given by an official using παραγγέλλω, as in Acts 23:22 above, but κελεύω highlights the aspect of authority. That is to say, παραγγέλλω is unmarked for the “rank” of its subject, but κελεύω implies that its subject has authority. We can see these words side by side in Acts 16:22-23. The order to whip Paul and Silas is reported using κελεύω, but the the order to throw them in jail is reported with παραγγέλλω, the marked word first, emphasizing the authority, and the unmarked word second, simply reporting that the order was given.

Acts 16:22-23

22 και συνεπεστη ο οχλος κατ αυτων και οι στρατηγοι περιρηξαντες αυτων τα ιματια εκελευον ραβδιζειν 23 πολλας τε επιθεντες αυτοις πληγας εβαλον εις φυλακην παραγγειλαντες τω δεσμοφυλακι ασφαλως τηρειν αυτους

22 And the crowd joined in the attack against Paul and Silas. Then the officials tore the clothes off Paul and Silas and ordered them to be whipped. 23 After a severe beating, they were thrown into jail, and the jailer was ordered to lock them up tight.

The word κελεύω is particularly interesting because twenty-one times its subject is a government official or a military officer, but four times its subject is Jesus (see the appendix). Clearly the writers of the Gospels are conveying that Jesus spoke as “one with authority” (Mark 1:22).

In a side note, this usage is different from Classical usage where παραγγέλλω used in the sense of giving orders is not a general word, but means what κελεύω means in the NT. See LSJ sense II., pg. 1306.

Now let us briefly consider the five remaining words derived from τάσσω. τάσσω basically means something like ‘put in a place (relative to other things), arrange’, or it did in Classical times. But even from Classical times it had the meaning of acting with words to set things in a certain order, for example, ‘to post [s.o. somewhere]’, and metaphorically ‘to appoint [s.o. to a position]’. This sense is also found in the NT.

Rom. 13:1

1 πασα ψυχη εξουσιαις υπερεχουσαις υποτασσεσθω ου γαρ εστιν εξουσια ει μη υπο θεου αι δε ουσαι υπο θεου τεταγμεναι εισιν

1 Everyone must obey state authorities, because no authority exists without God's permission, and the existing authorities have been put there by God.

But where τάσσω has been translated ‘order’, it might better be rendered, ‘arrange’, as in Matt. 28:16. (I’ve marked in square brackets the words filled in from context.)

Matt. 28:16

16 οι δε ενδεκα μαθηται επορευθησαν εις την γαλιλαιαν εις το ορος ου εταξατο αυτοις ο ιησους

GNB: 16 The eleven disciples went to the hill in Galilee where Jesus had told them [to go].

Better: 16 The eleven disciples went to the hill in Galilee where Jesus had arranged [to meet] them.

All of the derived forms of τάσσω share, to some degree or other, this sense of arranging, setting things up, albeit metaphorically. Since setting things up (like meeting on certain hill), involves telling people to do things, the difference between παραγγέλλω and forms of τάσσω is more one of emphasis. If you use a τάσσω word, you are focusing more on making arrangements or giving instructions. If you use παραγγέλλω you are focusing on the fact that it is an order. All of the τάσσω words are slightly different in sense.


διατάσσω is the general word for giving instructions.

Luke 8:55

55 και επεστρεψεν το πνευμα αυτης και ανεστη παραχρημα και διεταξεν αυτη δοθηναι φαγειν

55 Her life returned, and she got up at once, and Jesus ordered [better: instructed] them to give her something to eat.

1Cor. 16:1

1 περι δε της λογειας της εις τους αγιους ωσπερ διεταξα ταις εκκλησιαις της γαλατιας ουτως και υμεις ποιησατε

1 Now, concerning what you wrote about the money to be raised to help God's people in Judea. You must do what I told the churches in Galatia to do.

διατάσσω can also have a sense of a law, military order, or religious commandment, particularly as a participle used as a noun referring to the law, order, or commandment.

Luke 3:13

13 ο δε ειπεν προς αυτους μηδεν πλεον παρα το διατεταγμενον υμιν πρασσετε

13 "Don't collect more than is legal," he told them.

Acts 23:31

31 οι μεν ουν στρατιωται κατα το διατεταγμενον αυτοις αναλαβοντες τον παυλον ηγαγον δια νυκτος εις την αντιπατριδα

31 The soldiers carried out their orders. They got Paul and took him that night as far as Antipatris.

I’ll have more to say about this sense of this word in the next post.

ἐπιτάσσω is more like just plain telling someone to do something. It is almost as general as παραγγέλλω.

Mark 6:39

39 και επεταξεν αυτοις ανακλιναι παντας συμποσια συμποσια επι τω χλωρω χορτω

39 Jesus then told his disciples to make all the people divide into groups and sit down on the green grass.

προστάσσω is always refers to instructions or orders that are to be carried out at a later time. (This is a common enough distinction crosslinguistically. There are some languages, like the Native American languages Wayne and I work on, which have special verb forms for giving orders to be carried out in the future.)

Matt. 1:24

24 εγερθεις δε ο ιωσηφ απο του υπνου εποιησεν ως προσεταξεν αυτω ο αγγελος κυριου και παρελαβεν την γυναικα αυτου

24 So when Joseph woke up, he married Mary, as the angel of the Lord had told him to.

Acts 10:48

48 προσεταξεν δε αυτους εν τω ονοματι ιησου χριστου βαπτισθηναι τοτε ηρωτησαν αυτον επιμειναι ημερας τινας

48 So he ordered [better: arranged for]them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to stay with them for a few days.

And lastly, συντάσσω has the sense of more cooperation in the instructions, more like ‘arrange with s.o. [to do something]’.

Matt. 26:19

19 και εποιησαν οι μαθηται ως συνεταξεν αυτοις ο ιησους και ητοιμασαν το πασχα

19 The disciples did as Jesus had told them and prepared the Passover meal.


Now you may have noticed that I’ve omitted talking about ντέλλομαι. That’s because it deserves its own post. As a preview of things to come, I’ll point out that ντέλλομαι has to do with religious commandments.

Appendix I

You can sometimes tell a lot about the meanings of words by looking at the wording in parallel passages. For example, we can compare the accounts of the feeding of the five thousand. The key verse in each passage is the one that describes Jesus getting the people to sit down. In Matt. 14:19 this is described with κελεύω ‘give an order’.

Matt. 14:19

19 και κελευσας τους οχλους ανακλιθηναι επι του χορτου λαβων τους πεντε αρτους και τους δυο ιχθυας αναβλεψας εις τον ουρανον ευλογησεν και κλασας εδωκεν τοις μαθηταις τους αρτους οι δε μαθηται τοις οχλοις

19 He ordered the people to sit down on the grass; then he took the five loaves and the two fish, looked up to heaven, and gave thanks to God. He broke the loaves and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the people.

If we put the parallel verses next to it, we see something interesting. In each case the report is that the command was indirect, Jesus told his disciplines to get the people to sit down. Twice it’s simply the report of Jesus speaking to the disciples using λέγω. None of the words for order or command are used, and yet Matthew can describe the event with a word that highlights Jesus authority.

Mark 6:39

39 και επεταξεν αυτοις ανακλιναι παντας συμποσια συμποσια επι τω χλωρω χορτω

39 Jesus then told his disciples to make all the people divide into groups and sit down on the green grass.

Luke 9:14

14 ησαν γαρ ωσει ανδρες πεντακισχιλιοι ειπεν δε προς τους μαθητας αυτου κατακλινατε αυτους κλισιας ωσει ανα πεντηκοντα

14 (There were about five thousand men there.) Jesus said to his disciples, "Make the people sit down in groups of about fifty each."

John 6:10

10 ειπεν ο ιησους ποιησατε τους ανθρωπους αναπεσειν ην δε χορτος πολυς εν τω τοπω ανεπεσαν ουν οι ανδρες τον αριθμον ως πεντακισχιλιοι

10 "Make the people sit down," Jesus told them. (There was a lot of grass there.) So all the people sat down; there were about five thousand men.


Appendix II

A complete list of verses for each of the words discussed follows, so you can check my homework without having to look everything up for yourself.

παραγγέλλω – general word for telling someone to do something

Matt. 10:5

5 τουτους τους δωδεκα απεστειλεν ο ιησους παραγγειλας αυτοις λεγων εις οδον εθνων μη απελθητε και εις πολιν σαμαρειτων μη εισελθητε

5 These twelve men were sent out by Jesus with the following instructions: "Do not go to any Gentile territory or any Samaritan towns.

Matt. 15:35

35 και παραγγειλας τω οχλω αναπεσειν επι την γην

35 So Jesus ordered the crowd to sit down on the ground.

Mark 6:8

7 και προσκαλειται τους δωδεκα και ηρξατο αυτους αποστελλειν δυο δυο και εδιδου αυτοις εξουσιαν των πνευματων των ακαθαρτων 8 και παρηγγειλεν αυτοις ινα μηδεν αιρωσιν εις οδον ει μη ραβδον μονον μη αρτον μη πηραν μη εις την ζωνην χαλκον

7 He called the twelve disciples together and sent them out two by two. He gave them authority over the evil spirits 8 and ordered them, "Don't take anything with you on the trip except a walking stick---no bread, no beggar's bag, no money in your pockets.

Mark 8:6

6 και παραγγελλει τω οχλω αναπεσειν επι της γης και λαβων τους επτα αρτους ευχαριστησας εκλασεν και εδιδου τοις μαθηταις αυτου ινα παρατιθωσιν και παρεθηκαν τω οχλω

6 He ordered the crowd to sit down on the ground. Then he took the seven loaves, gave thanks to God, broke them, and gave them to his disciples to distribute to the crowd; and the disciples did so.

Luke 5:14

14 και αυτος παρηγγειλεν αυτω μηδενι ειπειν αλλα απελθων δειξον σεαυτον τω ιερει και προσενεγκε περι του καθαρισμου σου καθως προσεταξεν μωυσης εις μαρτυριον αυτοις

14 Jesus ordered him, "Don't tell anyone, but go straight to the priest and let him examine you; then to prove to everyone that you are cured, offer the sacrifice as Moses ordered."

Luke 8:29

29 παρηγγειλεν γαρ τω πνευματι τω ακαθαρτω εξελθειν απο του ανθρωπου πολλοις γαρ χρονοις συνηρπακει αυτον και εδεσμευετο αλυσεσιν και πεδαις φυλασσομενος και διαρρησσων τα δεσμα ηλαυνετο υπο του δαιμονιου εις τας ερημους

29 He said this because Jesus had ordered the evil spirit to go out of him. Many times it had seized him, and even though he was kept a prisoner, his hands and feet tied with chains, he would break the chains and be driven by the demon out into the desert.

Luke 8:56

56 και εξεστησαν οι γονεις αυτης ο δε παρηγγειλεν αυτοις μηδενι ειπειν το γεγονος

56 Her parents were astounded, but Jesus commanded them not to tell anyone what had happened.

Luke 9:21

21 ο δε επιτιμησας αυτοις παρηγγειλεν μηδενι λεγειν τουτο

21 Then Jesus gave them strict orders not to tell this to anyone.

Acts 1:4

4 και συναλιζομενος παρηγγειλεν αυτοις απο ιεροσολυμων μη χωριζεσθαι αλλα περιμενειν την επαγγελιαν του πατρος ην ηκουσατε μου

4 And when they came together, he gave them this order: "Do not leave Jerusalem, but wait for the gift I told you about, the gift my Father promised.

Acts 4:18

18 και καλεσαντες αυτους παρηγγειλαν το καθολου μη φθεγγεσθαι μηδε διδασκειν επι τω ονοματι του ιησου

18 So they called them back in and told them that under no condition were they to speak or to teach in the name of Jesus.

Acts 5:28

28 λεγων παραγγελια παρηγγειλαμεν υμιν μη διδασκειν επι τω ονοματι τουτω και ιδου πεπληρωκατε την ιερουσαλημ της διδαχης υμων και βουλεσθε επαγαγειν εφ ημας το αιμα του ανθρωπου τουτου

28 "We gave you strict orders not to teach in the name of this man," he said; "but see what you have done! You have spread your teaching all over Jerusalem, and you want to make us responsible for his death!"

Acts 5:40

40 επεισθησαν δε αυτω και προσκαλεσαμενοι τους αποστολους δειραντες παρηγγειλαν μη λαλειν επι τω ονοματι του ιησου και απελυσαν

40 They called the apostles in, had them whipped, and ordered them never again to speak in the name of Jesus; and then they set them free.

Acts 10:42

42 και παρηγγειλεν ημιν κηρυξαι τω λαω και διαμαρτυρασθαι οτι ουτος εστιν ο ωρισμενος υπο του θεου κριτης ζωντων και νεκρων

42 And he commanded us to preach the gospel to the people and to testify that he is the one whom God has appointed judge of the living and the dead.

Acts 15:5

5 εξανεστησαν δε τινες των απο της αιρεσεως των φαρισαιων πεπιστευκοτες λεγοντες οτι δει περιτεμνειν αυτους παραγγελλειν τε τηρειν τον νομον μωυσεως

5 But some of the believers who belonged to the party of the Pharisees stood up and said, "The Gentiles must be circumcised and told to obey the Law of Moses."

Acts 16:18

18 τουτο δε εποιει επι πολλας ημερας διαπονηθεις δε παυλος και επιστρεψας τω πνευματι ειπεν παραγγελλω σοι εν ονοματι ιησου χριστου εξελθειν απ αυτης και εξηλθεν αυτη τη ωρα

18 She did this for many days, until Paul became so upset that he turned around and said to the spirit, "In the name of Jesus Christ I order you to come out of her!" The spirit went out of her that very moment.

Acts 16:22-23

22 και συνεπεστη ο οχλος κατ αυτων και οι στρατηγοι περιρηξαντες αυτων τα ιματια εκελευον ραβδιζειν 23 πολλας | δε | τε | επιθεντες αυτοις πληγας εβαλον εις φυλακην παραγγειλαντες τω δεσμοφυλακι ασφαλως τηρειν αυτους

22 And the crowd joined in the attack against Paul and Silas. Then the officials tore the clothes off Paul and Silas and ordered them to be whipped. 23 After a severe beating, they were thrown into jail, and the jailer was ordered to lock them up tight.

Acts 17:30

30 τους μεν ουν χρονους της αγνοιας υπεριδων ο θεος τα νυν παραγγελλει τοις ανθρωποις παντας πανταχου μετανοειν

30 God has overlooked the times when people did not know him, but now he commands all of them everywhere to turn away from their evil ways.

Acts 23:22

22 ο μεν ουν χιλιαρχος απελυσεν τον νεανισκον παραγγειλας μηδενι εκλαλησαι οτι ταυτα ενεφανισας προς | εμε | με |

22 The commander said, "Don't tell anyone that you have reported this to me." And he sent the young man away.

Acts 23:30

30 μηνυθεισης δε μοι επιβουλης εις τον ανδρα εσεσθαι εξαυτης επεμψα προς σε παραγγειλας και τοις κατηγοροις λεγειν | | [τα] | προς αυτον επι σου

30 And when I was informed that there was a plot against him, at once I decided to send him to you. I have told his accusers to make their charges against him before you."

1Cor. 7:10

10 τοις δε γεγαμηκοσιν παραγγελλω ουκ εγω αλλα ο κυριος γυναικα απο ανδρος μη χωρισθηναι

10 For married people I have a command which is not my own but the Lord's: a wife must not leave her husband;

1Cor. 11:17

17 τουτο δε παραγγελλων ουκ επαινω οτι ουκ εις το κρεισσον αλλα εις το ησσον συνερχεσθε

17 In the following instructions, however, I do not praise you, because your meetings for worship actually do more harm than good.

1Thess. 4:11

11 και φιλοτιμεισθαι ησυχαζειν και πρασσειν τα ιδια και εργαζεσθαι ταις χερσιν υμων καθως υμιν παρηγγειλαμεν

11 Make it your aim to live a quiet life, to mind your own business, and to earn your own living, just as we told you before.

2Thess. 3:4

4 πεποιθαμεν δε εν κυριω εφ υμας οτι α παραγγελλομεν [και] ποιειτε και ποιησετε

4 And the Lord gives us confidence in you, and we are sure that you are doing and will continue to do what we tell you.

2Thess. 3:6

6 παραγγελλομεν δε υμιν αδελφοι εν ονοματι του κυριου | | [ημων] | ιησου χριστου στελλεσθαι υμας απο παντος αδελφου ατακτως περιπατουντος και μη κατα την παραδοσιν ην | παρελαβετε | παρελαβοσαν | παρ ημων

6 Our friends, we command you in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to keep away from all believers who are living a lazy life and who do not follow the instructions that we gave them.

2Thess. 3:10

10 και γαρ οτε ημεν προς υμας τουτο παρηγγελλομεν υμιν οτι ει τις ου θελει εργαζεσθαι μηδε εσθιετω

10 While we were with you, we used to tell you, "Whoever refuses to work is not allowed to eat."

2Thess. 3:12

12 τοις δε τοιουτοις παραγγελλομεν και παρακαλουμεν εν κυριω ιησου χριστω ινα μετα ησυχιας εργαζομενοι τον εαυτων αρτον εσθιωσιν

12 In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ we command these people and warn them to lead orderly lives and work to earn their own living

1Tim. 1:3

3 καθως παρεκαλεσα σε προσμειναι εν εφεσω πορευομενος εις μακεδονιαν ινα παραγγειλης τισιν μη ετεροδιδασκαλειν

3 I want you to stay in Ephesus, just as I urged you when I was on my way to Macedonia. Some people there are teaching false doctrines, and you must order them to stop.

1Tim. 4:11

11 παραγγελλε ταυτα και διδασκε

11 Give them these instructions and these teachings.

1Tim. 5:7

7 και ταυτα παραγγελλε ινα ανεπιλημπτοι ωσιν

7 Give them these instructions, so that no one will find fault with them.

1Tim. 6:13

13 παραγγελλω | σοι | [σοι] | ενωπιον του θεου του ζωογονουντος τα παντα και χριστου ιησου του μαρτυρησαντος επι ποντιου πιλατου την καλην ομολογιαν

13 Before God, who gives life to all things, and before Christ Jesus, who firmly professed his faith before Pontius Pilate, I command you

1Tim. 6:17

17 τοις πλουσιοις εν τω νυν αιωνι παραγγελλε μη υψηλοφρονειν μηδε ηλπικεναι επι πλουτου αδηλοτητι αλλ επι θεω τω παρεχοντι ημιν παντα πλουσιως εις απολαυσιν

17 Command those who are rich in the things of this life not to be proud, but to place their hope, not in such an uncertain thing as riches, but in God, who generously gives us everything for our enjoyment.

κελεύω – give an order (what officials and military officiers do: 21/25, Jesus: 4/25, marked with asterisks)

*Matt. 8:18

18 ιδων δε ο ιησους οχλον περι αυτον εκελευσεν απελθειν εις το περαν

18 When Jesus noticed the crowd around him, he ordered his disciples to go to the other side of the lake.

Matt. 14:9

9 και λυπηθεις ο βασιλευς δια τους ορκους και τους συνανακειμενους εκελευσεν δοθηναι

9 The king was sad, but because of the promise he had made in front of all his guests he gave orders that her wish be granted.

*Matt. 14:19

19 και κελευσας τους οχλους ανακλιθηναι επι του χορτου λαβων τους πεντε αρτους και τους δυο ιχθυας αναβλεψας εις τον ουρανον ευλογησεν και κλασας εδωκεν τοις μαθηταις τους αρτους οι δε μαθηται τοις οχλοις

19 He ordered the people to sit down on the grass; then he took the five loaves and the two fish, looked up to heaven, and gave thanks to God. He broke the loaves and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the people.

*Matt. 14:28

28 αποκριθεις δε | ο πετρος ειπεν αυτω | αυτω ο πετρος ειπεν | κυριε ει συ ει κελευσον με ελθειν προς σε επι τα υδατα

28 Then Peter spoke up. "Lord, if it is really you, order me to come out on the water to you."

Matt. 18:25

25 μη εχοντος δε αυτου αποδουναι εκελευσεν αυτον ο κυριος πραθηναι και την γυναικα και τα τεκνα και παντα οσα εχει και αποδοθηναι

25 The servant did not have enough to pay his debt, so the king ordered him to be sold as a slave, with his wife and his children and all that he had, in order to pay the debt.

Matt. 27:58

58 ουτος προσελθων τω πιλατω ητησατο το σωμα του ιησου τοτε ο πιλατος εκελευσεν αποδοθηναι

58 He went into the presence of Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Pilate gave orders for the body to be given to Joseph.

Matt. 27:64

64 κελευσον ουν ασφαλισθηναι τον ταφον εως της τριτης ημερας μηποτε ελθοντες οι μαθηται | | αυτου | κλεψωσιν αυτον και ειπωσιν τω λαω ηγερθη απο των νεκρων και εσται η εσχατη πλανη χειρων της πρωτης

64 Give orders, then, for his tomb to be carefully guarded until the third day, so that his disciples will not be able to go and steal the body, and then tell the people that he was raised from death. This last lie would be even worse than the first one."

*Luke 18:40

40 σταθεις δε ο ιησους εκελευσεν αυτον αχθηναι προς αυτον εγγισαντος δε αυτου επηρωτησεν αυτον

40 So Jesus stopped and ordered the blind man to be brought to him. When he came near, Jesus asked him,

Acts 4:15

15 κελευσαντες δε αυτους εξω του συνεδριου απελθειν συνεβαλλον προς αλληλους

15 So they told them to leave the Council room, and then they started discussing among themselves.

Acts 5:34

34 αναστας δε τις εν τω συνεδριω φαρισαιος ονοματι γαμαλιηλ νομοδιδασκαλος τιμιος παντι τω λαω εκελευσεν εξω βραχυ τους ανθρωπους ποιησαι

34 But one of them, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, who was a teacher of the Law and was highly respected by all the people, stood up in the Council. He ordered the apostles to be taken out for a while

Acts 8:38

38 και εκελευσεν στηναι το αρμα και κατεβησαν αμφοτεροι εις το υδωρ ο τε φιλιππος και ο ευνουχος και εβαπτισεν αυτον

38 The official ordered the carriage to stop, and both Philip and the official went down into the water, and Philip baptized him.

Acts 12:19

19 ηρωδης δε επιζητησας αυτον και μη ευρων ανακρινας τους φυλακας εκελευσεν απαχθηναι και κατελθων απο της ιουδαιας εις καισαρειαν διετριβεν

19 Herod gave orders to search for him, but they could not find him. So he had the guards questioned and ordered them put to death. After this, Herod left Judea and spent some time in Caesarea.

Acts 16:22

22 και συνεπεστη ο οχλος κατ αυτων και οι στρατηγοι περιρηξαντες αυτων τα ιματια εκελευον ραβδιζειν

22 And the crowd joined in the attack against Paul and Silas. Then the officials tore the clothes off Paul and Silas and ordered them to be whipped.

Acts 21:33-34

33 τοτε εγγισας ο χιλιαρχος επελαβετο αυτου και εκελευσεν δεθηναι αλυσεσιν δυσιν και επυνθανετο τις ειη και τι εστιν πεποιηκως , 34 αλλοι δε αλλο τι επεφωνουν εν τω οχλω μη δυναμενου δε αυτου γνωναι το ασφαλες δια τον θορυβον εκελευσεν αγεσθαι αυτον εις την παρεμβολην

33 The commander went over to Paul, arrested him, and ordered him to be bound with two chains. Then he asked, "Who is this man, and what has he done?" 34 Some in the crowd shouted one thing, others something else. There was such confusion that the commander could not find out exactly what had happened, so he ordered his men to take Paul up into the fort.

Acts 22:24

24 εκελευσεν ο χιλιαρχος εισαγεσθαι αυτον εις την παρεμβολην ειπας μαστιξιν ανεταζεσθαι αυτον ινα επιγνω δι ην αιτιαν ουτως επεφωνουν αυτω

24 The Roman commander ordered his men to take Paul into the fort, and he told them to whip him in order to find out why the Jews were screaming like this against him.

Acts 22:30

30 τη δε επαυριον βουλομενος γνωναι το ασφαλες το τι κατηγορειται υπο των ιουδαιων ελυσεν αυτον και εκελευσεν συνελθειν τους αρχιερεις και παν το συνεδριον και καταγαγων τον παυλον εστησεν εις αυτους

30 The commander wanted to find out for sure what the Jews were accusing Paul of; so the next day he had Paul's chains taken off and ordered the chief priests and the whole Council to meet. Then he took Paul and made him stand before them.

Acts 23:3

3 τοτε ο παυλος προς αυτον ειπεν τυπτειν σε μελλει ο θεος τοιχε κεκονιαμενε και συ καθη κρινων με κατα τον νομον και παρανομων κελευεις με τυπτεσθαι

3 Paul said to him, "God will certainly strike you---you whitewashed wall! You sit there to judge me according to the Law, yet you break the Law by ordering them to strike me!"

Acts 23:10

10 πολλης δε γινομενης στασεως φοβηθεις ο χιλιαρχος μη διασπασθη ο παυλος υπ αυτων εκελευσεν το στρατευμα καταβαν αρπασαι αυτον εκ μεσου αυτων αγειν | | τε | εις την παρεμβολην

10 The argument became so violent that the commander was afraid that Paul would be torn to pieces. So he ordered his soldiers to go down into the group, get Paul away from them, and take him into the fort.

Acts 23:35

35 διακουσομαι σου εφη οταν και οι κατηγοροι σου παραγενωνται κελευσας εν τω πραιτωριω του ηρωδου φυλασσεσθαι αυτον

35 he said, "I will hear you when your accusers arrive." Then he gave orders for Paul to be kept under guard in the governor's headquarters.

Acts 25:6

6 διατριψας δε εν αυτοις ημερας ου πλειους οκτω η δεκα καταβας εις καισαρειαν τη επαυριον καθισας επι του βηματος εκελευσεν τον παυλον αχθηναι

6 Festus spent another eight or ten days with them and then went to Caesarea. On the next day he sat down in the judgment court and ordered Paul to be brought in.

Acts 25:17

17 συνελθοντων ουν ενθαδε αναβολην μηδεμιαν ποιησαμενος τη εξης καθισας επι του βηματος εκελευσα αχθηναι τον ανδρα

17 When they came here, then, I lost no time, but on the very next day I sat in the judgment court and ordered the man to be brought in.

Acts 25:21

21 του δε παυλου επικαλεσαμενου τηρηθηναι αυτον εις την του σεβαστου διαγνωσιν εκελευσα τηρεισθαι αυτον εως ου αναπεμψω αυτον προς καισαρα

21 But Paul appealed; he asked to be kept under guard and to let the Emperor decide his case. So I gave orders for him to be kept under guard until I could send him to the Emperor."

Acts 25:23

23 τη ουν επαυριον ελθοντος του αγριππα και της βερνικης μετα πολλης φαντασιας και εισελθοντων εις το ακροατηριον συν τε χιλιαρχοις και ανδρασιν τοις κατ εξοχην της πολεως και κελευσαντος του φηστου ηχθη ο παυλος

23 The next day Agrippa and Bernice came with great pomp and ceremony and entered the audience hall with the military chiefs and the leading men of the city. Festus gave the order, and Paul was brought in.

Acts 27:43

43 ο δε εκατονταρχης βουλομενος διασωσαι τον παυλον εκωλυσεν αυτους του βουληματος εκελευσεν τε τους δυναμενους κολυμβαν αποριψαντας πρωτους επι την γην εξιεναι

43 But the army officer wanted to save Paul, so he stopped them from doing this. Instead, he ordered everyone who could swim to jump overboard first and swim ashore;

τάσσω – make arrangements, also determine, set up, appoint

Matt. 28:16

16 οι δε ενδεκα μαθηται επορευθησαν εις την γαλιλαιαν εις το ορος ου εταξατο αυτοις ο ιησους

16 The eleven disciples went to the hill in Galilee where Jesus had told them to go.

Acts 22:10

10 ειπον δε τι ποιησω κυριε ο δε κυριος ειπεν προς με αναστας πορευου εις δαμασκον κακει σοι λαληθησεται περι παντων ων τετακται σοι ποιησαι

10 I asked, 'What shall I do, Lord?' and the Lord said to me, 'Get up and go into Damascus, and there you will be told everything that God has determined for you to do.'

Acts 28:23

23 ταξαμενοι δε αυτω ημεραν ηλθον προς αυτον εις την ξενιαν πλειονες οις εξετιθετο διαμαρτυρομενος την βασιλειαν του θεου πειθων τε αυτους περι του ιησου απο τε του νομου μωυσεως και των προφητων απο πρωι εως εσπερας

23 So they set a date with Paul, and a large number of them came that day to the place where Paul was staying. From morning till night he explained to them his message about the Kingdom of God, and he tried to convince them about Jesus by quoting from the Law of Moses and the writings of the prophets.

Acts 13:48

48 ακουοντα δε τα εθνη εχαιρον και εδοξαζον τον λογον του | θεου | κυριου | και επιστευσαν οσοι ησαν τεταγμενοι εις ζωην αιωνιον

48 When the Gentiles heard this, they were glad and praised the Lord's message; and those who had been chosen for eternal life became believers.

Rom. 13:1

1 πασα ψυχη εξουσιαις υπερεχουσαις υποτασσεσθω ου γαρ εστιν εξουσια ει μη υπο θεου αι δε ουσαι υπο θεου τεταγμεναι εισιν

1 Everyone must obey state authorities, because no authority exists without God's permission, and the existing authorities have been put there by God.

1Cor 16:15

15 παρακαλω δε υμας αδελφοι οιδατε την οικιαν στεφανα οτι εστιν απαρχη της αχαιας και εις διακονιαν τοις αγιοις εταξαν εαυτους

15 You know about Stephanas and his family; they are the first Christian converts in Achaia and have given themselves to the service of God's people. I beg you, my friends

Acts 15:2

2 γενομενης δε στασεως και ζητησεως ουκ ολιγης τω παυλω και τω βαρναβα προς αυτους εταξαν αναβαινειν παυλον και βαρναβαν και τινας αλλους εξ αυτων προς τους αποστολους και πρεσβυτερους εις ιερουσαλημ περι του ζητηματος τουτου

2 Paul and Barnabas got into a fierce argument with them about this, so it was decided that Paul and Barnabas and some of the others in Antioch should go to Jerusalem and see the apostles and elders about this matter.

Luke 7:8

8 και γαρ εγω ανθρωπος ειμι υπο εξουσιαν τασσομενος εχων υπ εμαυτον στρατιωτας και λεγω τουτω πορευθητι και πορευεται και αλλω ερχου και ερχεται και τω δουλω μου ποιησον τουτο και ποιει

8 I, too, am a man placed under the authority of superior officers, and I have soldiers under me. I order this one, 'Go!' and he goes; I order that one, 'Come!' and he comes; and I order my slave, 'Do this!' and he does it."

διατάσσω – general word for giving instructions

Matt. 11:1

1 και εγενετο οτε ετελεσεν ο ιησους διατασσων τοις δωδεκα μαθηταις αυτου μετεβη εκειθεν του διδασκειν και κηρυσσειν εν ταις πολεσιν αυτων

1 When Jesus finished giving these instructions to his twelve disciples, he left that place and went off to teach and preach in the towns near there.

Luke 3:13

13 ο δε ειπεν προς αυτους μηδεν πλεον παρα το διατεταγμενον υμιν πρασσετε

13 "Don't collect more than is legal," he told them.

Luke 8:55

55 και επεστρεψεν το πνευμα αυτης και ανεστη παραχρημα και διεταξεν αυτη δοθηναι φαγειν

55 Her life returned, and she got up at once, and Jesus ordered them to give her something to eat.

Luke 17:9-10

9 μη εχει χαριν τω δουλω οτι εποιησεν τα διαταχθεντα 10 ουτως και υμεις οταν ποιησητε παντα τα διαταχθεντα υμιν λεγετε οτι δουλοι αχρειοι εσμεν ο ωφειλομεν ποιησαι πεποιηκαμεν

9 The servant does not deserve thanks for obeying orders, does he? 10 It is the same with you; when you have done all you have been told to do, say, 'We are ordinary servants; we have only done our duty.' "

Acts 7:44

44 η σκηνη του μαρτυριου ην τοις πατρασιν ημων εν τη ερημω καθως διεταξατο ο λαλων τω μωυση ποιησαι αυτην κατα τον τυπον ον εωρακει

44 "Our ancestors had the Tent of God's presence with them in the desert. It had been made as God had told Moses to make it, according to the pattern that Moses had been shown.

Acts 18:2

2 και ευρων τινα ιουδαιον ονοματι ακυλαν ποντικον τω γενει προσφατως εληλυθοτα απο της ιταλιας και πρισκιλλαν γυναικα αυτου δια το διατεταχεναι κλαυδιον χωριζεσθαι παντας τους ιουδαιους απο της ρωμης προσηλθεν αυτοις

2 There he met a Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, who had recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, for Emperor Claudius had ordered all the Jews to leave Rome. Paul went to see them,

Acts 20:13

13 ημεις δε προελθοντες επι το πλοιον ανηχθημεν επι την ασσον εκειθεν μελλοντες αναλαμβανειν τον παυλον ουτως γαρ διατεταγμενος ην μελλων αυτος πεζευειν

13 We went on ahead to the ship and sailed off to Assos, where we were going to take Paul aboard. He had told us to do this, because he was going there by land.

Acts 23:31

31 οι μεν ουν στρατιωται κατα το διατεταγμενον αυτοις αναλαβοντες τον παυλον ηγαγον δια νυκτος εις την αντιπατριδα

31 The soldiers carried out their orders. They got Paul and took him that night as far as Antipatris.

Acts 24:23

23 διαταξαμενος τω εκατονταρχη τηρεισθαι αυτον εχειν τε ανεσιν και μηδενα κωλυειν των ιδιων αυτου υπηρετειν αυτω

23 He ordered the officer in charge of Paul to keep him under guard, but to give him some freedom and allow his friends to provide for his needs.

1Cor. 7:17

17 ει μη εκαστω ως | μεμερικεν | εμερισεν | ο κυριος εκαστον ως κεκληκεν ο θεος ουτως περιπατειτω και ουτως εν ταις εκκλησιαις πασαις διατασσομαι

17 Each of you should go on living according to the Lord's gift to you, and as you were when God called you. This is the rule I teach in all the churches.

1Cor. 9:14

14 ουτως και ο κυριος διεταξεν τοις το ευαγγελιον καταγγελλουσιν εκ του ευαγγελιου ζην

14 In the same way, the Lord has ordered that those who preach the gospel should get their living from it.

1Cor. 11:34

34 ει τις πεινα εν οικω εσθιετω ινα μη εις κριμα συνερχησθε τα δε λοιπα ως αν ελθω διαταξομαι

34 And if any of you are hungry, you should eat at home, so that you will not come under God's judgment as you meet together. As for the other matters, I will settle them when I come.

1Cor. 16:1

1 περι δε της λογειας της εις τους αγιους ωσπερ διεταξα ταις εκκλησιαις της γαλατιας ουτως και υμεις ποιησατε

1 Now, concerning what you wrote about the money to be raised to help God's people in Judea. You must do what I told the churches in Galatia to do.

Gal. 3:19

19 τι ουν ο νομος των παραβασεων χαριν προσετεθη αχρις | αν | ου | ελθη το σπερμα ω επηγγελται διαταγεις δι αγγελων εν χειρι μεσιτου

19 What, then, was the purpose of the Law? It was added in order to show what wrongdoing is, and it was meant to last until the coming of Abraham's descendant, to whom the promise was made. The Law was handed down by angels, with a man acting as a go-between.

Tit. 1:5

5 τουτου χαριν | απελειπον | απελιπον | σε εν κρητη ινα τα λειποντα επιδιορθωση και καταστησης κατα πολιν πρεσβυτερους ως εγω σοι διεταξαμην 6 ει τις εστιν ανεγκλητος μιας γυναικος ανηρ τεκνα εχων πιστα μη εν κατηγορια ασωτιας η ανυποτακτα

5 I left you in Crete, so that you could put in order the things that still needed doing and appoint church elders in every town. Remember my instructions: 6 an elder must be without fault; he must have only one wife, and his children must be believers and not have the reputation of being wild or disobedient.

ἐπιτάσσω – general word for telling someone to do something

Mark 6:27

27 και ευθυς αποστειλας ο βασιλευς σπεκουλατορα επεταξεν ενεγκαι την κεφαλην αυτου

27 So he sent off a guard at once with orders to bring John's head. The guard left, went to the prison, and cut John's head off;

Mark 6:39

39 και επεταξεν αυτοις ανακλιναι παντας συμποσια συμποσια επι τω χλωρω χορτω

39 Jesus then told his disciples to make all the people divide into groups and sit down on the green grass.

Luke 14:22

22 και ειπεν ο δουλος κυριε γεγονεν ο επεταξας και ετι τοπος εστιν

22 Soon the servant said, 'Your order has been carried out, sir, but there is room for more.'

Acts 23:2

2 ο δε αρχιερευς ανανιας επεταξεν τοις παρεστωσιν αυτω τυπτειν αυτου το στομα

2 The High Priest Ananias ordered those who were standing close to Paul to strike him on the mouth.

Mark 1:27

27 και εθαμβηθησαν απαντες ωστε συζητειν | αυτους | προς εαυτους | λεγοντας τι εστιν τουτο διδαχη καινη κατ εξουσιαν και τοις πνευμασιν τοις ακαθαρτοις επιτασσει και υπακουουσιν αυτω

27 The people were all so amazed that they started saying to one another, "What is this? Is it some kind of new teaching? This man has authority to give orders to the evil spirits, and they obey him!"

Luke 4:36

36 και εγενετο θαμβος επι παντας και συνελαλουν προς αλληλους λεγοντες τις ο λογος ουτος οτι εν εξουσια και δυναμει επιτασσει τοις ακαθαρτοις πνευμασιν και εξερχονται

36 The people were all amazed and said to one another, "What kind of words are these? With authority and power this man gives orders to the evil spirits, and they come out!"

Luke 8:25

25 ειπεν δε αυτοις που η πιστις υμων φοβηθεντες δε εθαυμασαν λεγοντες προς αλληλους τις αρα ουτος εστιν οτι και τοις ανεμοις επιτασσει και τω υδατι και υπακουουσιν αυτω

25 Then he said to the disciples, "Where is your faith?" But they were amazed and afraid, and said to one another, "Who is this man? He gives orders to the winds and waves, and they obey him!"

Mark 9:25

25 ιδων δε ο ιησους οτι επισυντρεχει οχλος επετιμησεν τω πνευματι τω ακαθαρτω λεγων αυτω το αλαλον και κωφον πνευμα εγω επιτασσω σοι εξελθε εξ αυτου και μηκετι εισελθης εις αυτον

25 Jesus noticed that the crowd was closing in on them, so he gave a command to the evil spirit. "Deaf and dumb spirit," he said, "I order you to come out of the boy and never go into him again!"

Luke 8:31

31 και παρεκαλουν αυτον ινα μη επιταξη αυτοις εις την αβυσσον απελθειν

31 The demons begged Jesus not to send them into the abyss.

Phm. 1:8

8 διο πολλην εν χριστω παρρησιαν εχων επιτασσειν σοι το ανηκον

8 For this reason I could be bold enough, as your brother in Christ, to order you to do what should be done.

προστάσσω – tell somebody to do something at a later time

Matt. 1:24

24 εγερθεις δε | [ο] | ο | ιωσηφ απο του υπνου εποιησεν ως προσεταξεν αυτω ο αγγελος κυριου και παρελαβεν την γυναικα αυτου

24 So when Joseph woke up, he married Mary, as the angel of the Lord had told him to.

Matt. 8:4

4 και λεγει αυτω ο ιησους ορα μηδενι ειπης αλλα υπαγε σεαυτον δειξον τω ιερει και προσενεγκον το δωρον ο προσεταξεν μωυσης εις μαρτυριον αυτοις

4 Then Jesus said to him, "Listen! Don't tell anyone, but go straight to the priest and let him examine you; then in order to prove to everyone that you are cured, offer the sacrifice that Moses ordered."

Mark 1:44

44 και λεγει αυτω ορα μηδενι μηδεν ειπης αλλα υπαγε σεαυτον δειξον τω ιερει και προσενεγκε περι του καθαρισμου σου α προσεταξεν μωυσης εις μαρτυριον αυτοις

44 after saying to him, "Listen, don't tell anyone about this. But go straight to the priest and let him examine you; then in order to prove to everyone that you are cured, offer the sacrifice that Moses ordered."

Luke 5:14

14 και αυτος παρηγγειλεν αυτω μηδενι ειπειν αλλα απελθων δειξον σεαυτον τω ιερει και προσενεγκε περι του καθαρισμου σου καθως προσεταξεν μωυσης εις μαρτυριον αυτοις

14 Jesus ordered him, "Don't tell anyone, but go straight to the priest and let him examine you; then to prove to everyone that you are cured, offer the sacrifice as Moses ordered."

Acts 10:33

33 εξαυτης ουν επεμψα προς σε συ τε καλως εποιησας παραγενομενος νυν ουν παντες ημεις ενωπιον του θεου παρεσμεν ακουσαι παντα τα προστεταγμενα σοι υπο του κυριου

33 And so I sent for you at once, and you have been good enough to come. Now we are all here in the presence of God, waiting to hear anything that the Lord has instructed you to say."

Acts 10:48

48 προσεταξεν δε αυτους εν τω ονοματι ιησου χριστου βαπτισθηναι τοτε ηρωτησαν αυτον επιμειναι ημερας τινας

48 So he ordered them to be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ. Then they asked him to stay with them for a few days.

συντάσσω – make arrangements with someone

Matt. 21:6

6 πορευθεντες δε οι μαθηται και ποιησαντες καθως συνεταξεν αυτοις ο ιησους

6 So the disciples went and did what Jesus had told them to do:

Matt. 26:19

19 και εποιησαν οι μαθηται ως συνεταξεν αυτοις ο ιησους και ητοιμασαν το πασχα

19 The disciples did as Jesus had told them and prepared the Passover meal.

Matt. 27:10

9 τοτε επληρωθη το ρηθεν δια ιερεμιου του προφητου λεγοντος και ελαβον τα τριακοντα αργυρια την τιμην του τετιμημενου ον ετιμησαντο απο υιων ισραηλ 10 και εδωκαν αυτα εις τον αγρον του κεραμεως καθα συνεταξεν μοι κυριος

9 Then what the prophet Jeremiah had said came true: "They took the thirty silver coins, the amount the people of Israel had agreed to pay for him, 10 and used the money to buy the potter's field, as the Lord had commanded me."

3 Comments:

At Fri Jun 16, 05:57:00 AM, Blogger Dan Sindlinger said...

Great post, Rich. I thought it would also be interesting to note how often hUPOTASSW is used in response to its counterpart TASSW verbs.

 
At Fri Jun 16, 07:03:00 AM, Blogger Suzanne McCarthy said...

Hi Dan,
You read my thoughts!

Rich,
Thanks for this digression. It is very interesting.

The relevance of this apparent digression is that it is always the case that part of the meaning of any word, επιτιμάω included, is provided by the contrast with the meanings of other words the speaker could have chosen to use but didn’t.

 
At Fri Jun 16, 01:09:00 PM, Blogger Richard A. Rhodes said...

Dan,
Good point. In order for one to issue a command one must believe:

1) s/he has the authority to do so (i.e., is in an appropriate social relationship relative to the person being ordered)
2) the person ordered has the ability to carry the order out.

Hupotassw is an expression of the first condition. Especially where it was unexpected -- i.e., with evil spirits.

Actually, it's more complex. We issue orders, or something like orders to our social equals all the time, but to do so we have to tone them down -- make them requests rather than orders. "While you're up, could you get me a Coke from the fridge?"

Part of what we miss in Scripture are the subtelties of how strong a statement is. Our translations dumb this down to a single rather forceful tone. But there's evidence internal to the text that there are a lot of nuances.

 

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