Better Bibles Blog has moved. Read our last post, below, and then
click here if you are not redirected to our new location within 60 seconds.
Please Bookmark our new location and update blogrolls.

Friday, June 15, 2007

WLBA 10: The Geneva Bible Notes

Here are our five verses in the Geneva Bible with the relevant notes.

Rom. 16:1

    Commend unto you Phoebe our sister, which is a servant of the Church of Cenchrea;
Rom. 16:2

    for she hath given hospitality unto many, and to me also.
Rom. 16:7

    Salute Andronicus and Junia my cousins and fellow prisoners, which are notable among the Apostles, and (*) were in (d) Christ before me.

    (*) They were grafted in Christ by faith afore I was called, and were well esteemed of the Apostles, and of the Churches.
    (d) Engrafted by faith.
The Geneva Bible notes indicate that Junia was only "esteemed of" the apostles. Luther believed that Junias was a male and translated the phrase with the German equivalent of "who were famous apostles." It is hard to believe that this discrepancy was not motivated by the belief that women could not be leaders. However, I find it interesting that the Puritans had this conviction but did not alter the actual translation of the phrase accordingly. They were willing to leave the Bible translation itself ambiguous and literal.

1 Cor. 11:10
    10 (9) Therefore ought the woman to have (c) (*) power on her head, because of the (10) (♣) Angels.

    (9) The conclusion: Women must be covered, to shew by this external sign their subjection. (c) A covering which is a token of subjection.
    (*) Something to cover her head in sign of subjection. (10) What this meaneth, I do not yet understand.
    (♣) To whom they also shew their dissolution, and not only to Christ.
The notes on this chapter are, taken as a whole, quite fascinating and I cannot do them justice here. It is enough to notice that these notes state that woman is one degree beneath man, and unequal, and that man is preeminent and superior. Two further remarks are of interest. One is that "mutual conjunction may be cherished." Women may not be equal but the conjunction of man with woman is still to be thought of in terms of affection.

A note on 1 Cor. 11:4 is as follows,
    Every (b) man (*) praying or (♣) prophesying having anything on his head, (♠) dishonoreth his head. is as follows,

    It appeareth that this was a politic law serving only for the circumstances of the time that Paul lived in, by this reason, because in these our days for a man to speak bareheaded in an assembly is a sign of subjection.
I have found the notes on 1 Tim. 2: 12-15 to be the most enlightening.
    12 (*) I permit not a woman to teach, (8) neither to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.

    (*) 1 Corinthians 14:34 .
    (8) The first argument, why it is not lawful for women to teach in the Congregation, because by this means they should be placed above men, for they would be their masters; which is against God's ordinance.

    14 And Adam was (♣) not (g) deceived, but the woman was deceived, and was in the (♠) transgression.

    (*) Genesis 3:6 .
    (10) Then because that after sin God enjoined the woman this punishment, for that the man was deceived by her.
    (♣) The woman was first deceived, and so became the instrument of Satan to deceive the man; and though therefore God punisheth them with subjection and pain in their travel, yet if they be faithful and godly in their vocation, they shall be saved.

    15 (11) Notwithstanding, through bearing of children she shall be saved, if (*) they continue in faith, and love, and holiness with modesty.

    (11) He addeth a comfort by the way, that their subjection hindereth not, but that women may be saved as well as men, if they behave themselves in those burdens holily and modestly, with faith and charity.
This affords us more insight into the thinking of the various annotators of the Geneva Bible. First, there is the recognition that the central circumstance of a married woman's life is "travel" that is, travail or labour, which in the past meant a very real risk of dying. In these notes we see the logical conjunction of subjection and travail as a punishment and a burden.

So subjection is not a role that woman was created to fulfill, but a punishment for her sin in being deceived first. Although this is not explicitly stated in the notes, it may be worth considering whether the annotators had in mind that it is subjection to a husband in the fulfillment of marital duties which makes a woman vulnerable to childbearing, pain and possibly death. Subjection and pain are inextricably linked as a burden and a punishment.

And verse 15 is therefore the comfort that a woman receives, the reassurance that she will be saved if she bear herself in these burdens with modesty, faith and charity.

I could not help but reflect on the fact that the male annotators of this Bible enjoin women to be subject and accept their circumstances in life, to bear their punishment for the sin of Eve with forbearance. But the Puritans as a party ultimately stifled their own scruples regarding the subjection of men to a ruler. Some left for America, some captured and beheaded their king and eventually some revolted in a second mutiny against the monarchy and set up self-government. Subjection was not for man but for woman.


I leave behind the Bibles of the 16th and 17th century with regret but hope to return to them again later in a fresh context. From the study of these bibles, I learned that although there was a firm belief in the subjection of women, based on their inequality and lower degree, the text of the Bible itself was not altered.

The literal translation of Rom. 16:7, 1 Cor. 11:10 and 1 Tim. 2:12 was not doctored to line up with the belief in women's subjection.The Bishops', Geneva and King James Bible had a relatively similar translation for the women's verses. It is significant that the KJV, which became the enduring translation, was devoid of interpretive notes refering to women's subjection.

I found it of interest that the notes in the Geneva Bible reflect a very different view of childbearing than what is taught by some theologians today. For 1 Tim. 2:15, there was a reference to the burden and travail of childbearing as a punishment from God. How different this is than the view widely written about now, that childbearing saves women in that they are preserved from temptation by staying either under their husband's authority, or within the domestic sphere, or in submission to male leadership.

Frankly I find the notes of the Geneva Bible preferable. They demonstrate recognition of the suffering of women in childbirth and no more posit subjection of the female to the male as a circumstance of rejoicing than the subjection of citizens to a tyranical ruler.

The 1582 Rheims Bible, contributed by Iyov, follows the Latin Vulgate very closely and does not in any way show that the notes, although particularly prejudiced against women, have influenced the translation itself. Junia was "noble among the apostles," and the other phrases are likewise literal, "have power upon her head" and "nor to have dominion over the man".

I especially enjoyed the many delightful phrases refering to women as "great talkers of scripture and promoters of heresie," as well as the rule of repression of "the saucinesse of contentious ianglers."



At Fri Jun 15, 08:12:00 PM, Blogger Iyov said...

You may find the comments of the 1582 Rheims of interest. I found this comment to 1 Tim 2:15 particularly strongly worded. Of course, I do not agree with it:

In times of licentiousnes, libertie, and heresie, vvomen are much giuen to reading, disputing, chatting, and iangling of the holy Scriptures, yea and to teach also if they might be permitted. but S. Paul vtterly forbiddeth it, and the [Subnote: S. Chrys. Ho. 9. in 1. Tim.] Greeke Doctors vpon this place note that the vvoman taught but once, that vvas vvhen after her reasoning vvith Satan, she persuaded her husband to transgression, and so she vndid al mankind. [Subnote: Women great talkers of Scripture, and promoters of heresie.] And in the Ecclesiastical vvriters vve find that vvomen haue been great promoters of euery sort of heresie (vvhereof see a notable discourse in S. Hierom ep. ad Ctesiph. cont. Pelag. c. 2.) vvhich they vvould not haue done, if they had according to the Apostles rule, folovved pietie and good vvorkes, and liued in silence and subiection to their hnsbands.

Following are the complete extracts.

Romans 16

Rheims Douai, 1582-1610

Biblical text

New Testament



Chap. XVI.

Chap. XVI.

He commendeth the bearer Phoebè to the Romanes, 3 and him self to many there by name. 17 he declareth the doctrine vvhich the Romanes had learned, to be the touchstone to knovv Seducers. 21 he doth vnto them the commendations of al the Churches and of certaine persons by name: 25 and concludeth.

[Page 421]

1 And I commend to you Phoebè our sister, vvho is in the ministerie of the Church that is in Cenchris:

2 that you receiue her in our Lord as it is vvorthie for saincts: and that you assist her in whatsoeuer busines she shal neede you. for she also hath assisted many and my self.

3 [Note: [c] The onely salutation of so vvorthy a man is sufficient to fil him vvith greate grace that is so saluted. Chrys. in 3. Tim. 4. ] Salute Prisca and Aquila my helpers in Christ Iesvs,

4 (vvho for my life haue laid dovvne their neckes: to vvho not I only giue thankes, but also al the Churches of the Gentiles)

5 and their [Note: This domestical Church vvas either that faith ful and Christia houshold, or rather the Christians meeting together there & in such good houses to heare diuine seruice and the Apostles preaching in those times of persecution. ] domestical Church. Salute Epænetus my beloued: vvho is the first fruite of Asia in Christ.

6 Salute Marie vvho hath laboured much about vs.

7 Salute Andrónicus and [Note: Iunia ] Iulia my cosins and fellovv captiues: vvho are noble among the Apostles, vvho also before me vvere in Christ.

8 Salute Ampliátus my best beloued in our Lord.

9 Salute Vrbánus our helper in Christ Iesvs, and Stachys my beloued.

10 Salute Apelles [Note: [c] ton doximon ] approued in Christ. Salute them that are of Aristóbolus house.

11 Salute Herodion my kinsman. Salute them that are of Narcissus house, that are in our Lord.

12 Salute Tryphæna and Tryphósa: vvho labour in our Lord. Salute Persis the beloued, vvho hath much laboured in our Lord.

13 Salute Rufus the elect in our Lord and his mother and mine.

14 Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Pátrobas, Hermes: and the brethren that are vvith them. [Note:

The Protestants here reaso thus, Peter is not here saluted, therfore he vvas neuer at Rome.

See the Annotation.

15 Salute Philólogus and Iulia, Nereus, and his sister and Olympias: and al the saincts that are vvith them.

16 Salute one an other in aholy kisse. Al the churches of Christ salute you.

17 And I desire you brethren,to marke them that make dissensions and scandals contrarie to the doctrine vvhich you haue [Note: [c] Of the Prince of the Apostles, saith Theodorete vpon this place. ] learned, and auoid them.

18 For such doe not serue Christ our Lord,but their ovvne belly: and [Note: The special vvay that Heretikes haue euer had to beguile, vvas and is by svveete vvordes & gay speaches. which their sheepes cote see before described particularly in the Annotations vpon S. Matthevv. 6. 7, 15. ] by svveete speaches and benedictions seduce the hartes of innocents.

19 Foryour obedience is published into euery place. I reioyce therfore in you. But I vvould haue you to be vvise in good, and simple in euil.

20 And the God of peace crush Satan vnder your feete quickely. The grace of our Lord Iesvs Christ be vvith you.

21 Timothee my coadiutor saluteth you, and Lucius, and Iason, and Sosípater, my kinsmen.

22 I Tertius salute you, that vvrote the epistle, in our Lord.

23 Caius mine host, and

[Page 422]
the whole Churches, saluteth you. Erastus the Cofferer of the citie saluteth you, and Quartus, a brother.
24 The grace of our Lord Iesvs Christ be vvith al you, Amen.

25 And to him that is able to confirme you according to my Gospel and preaching of Iesvs Christ, according to the reuelation of the mysterie from eternal times kept secrete,

26 vvhich novv is opened by the Scriptures of the prophets according to the precept of the eternal God, to the obediece of faith knovven in al Gentiles,

27 to God the only vvise through Iesvs Christ, to vvhom be honour & glorie for euer and euer. Amen.



16. Salute one an other. Neuer Sectmaisters made more foule or hard shifts to proue or defend falsehod, then the Protestants: but in tvvo points, about S. Peter specially, they passe euen them selues in impudencie. The first is, that they hold he vvas not preferred before the other Apostles, vvhich is against al Scriptures most euidently. The second is, that he vvas neuer at Rome, vvhich is against al the Ecclesiastical histories, al the Fathers Greeke and Latine, against the very sense and sight of the monuments of his Seate, Sepulcher, doctrine, life, and death there. [Subnote: That S. Peter was at Rome.] Greater euidence certes there is thereof and more vveighty testimonie, then of Romulus, Numas, Cæsars, or Ciceros being there: yet vvere he a very brutish man that vvould deny this to the discredite of so many vvriters and the vvhole vvorld. Much more monstruous it is, to heare any deny the other. Theodorete saith he vvas there, vvriting vpon this chapter. Prosper also carmine de ingratis in principio. S. Leo de natali Petri. S. Augustine to. 6 c. 4. cont. ep. fund. Orosius li. 7 c. 6. S. Chrysostome in ps. 48. S. Epiphanius hær. 27. Prudentius in hymno 2. S. Laurentij, & hymno 12. Optatus li. 2. contra Donatistas. S. Ambrose li. 5. ep. de Basilicis tradendis. S. Hierome in Catalogo. Lactantius li. 4. c. 21, de vera sapientia. Eusebius hist. Eccl. li. 2, c. 13, 15. S. Athanasius de fuga sua. S. Cyprian. ep. 55. nu. 6. Tertullian de præscriptionibus nu. 14. and li. 4, contra Marcionem nu. 4. Origen in Genes. apud Euseb. li. 3, c. 1. Irenæus li. 3, c. 3. Hegesippus li. 3, c. 2 de excid. Hierosolym. Caius and Papias the Apostles ovvne scholers, and Dionysius the B. of Corinth, alleaged by Eusebius li. 2, c. 14 & 24. Ignatius ep. ad Romanos. [Subnote: Chalced. conc. act. 3.] The holy Councel of Chalcedon, and many other affirme it. yea Peter him self (according to the iudgement of the aucient Fathers) confesseth he vvas at Rome, calling it Babylon 1. ep. c. 5. Euseb. li. 2. c. 14. hist. Ec. [Subnote: See the Annotations 1 Pet. c. 5, 13.] Some of these tel the time and cause of his first going thither: some, hovv long he liued there: some, the maner of his death there: some, the place of his burial: and al, that he vvas the first Bishop there. Hovv could so many of such vvisedom and spirit, so neere the Apostles time deceiue or be deceiued? how could Caluin and his, after fiftene hundred yeres knovv that vvhich none of them could see?

Some great argument must they needes haue to controule the credite of the vvhole vvorld. This of truth is here their argument, neither haue they a better in any place, to vvit, If S. Peter had bene at Rome, S. Paul vvould haue saluted him, as he did others here in the end of his letter to the Romanes. [Subnote: The Protestants great argument, that Peter was neuer at Rome.] Is not this a high point to disproue al antiquitie by? Any man of discretion may straight see, that S. Peter might be knovven vnto S. Paul to be out of the Citie, either for persecution or busines, vvhen this epistle vvas written, (for he went often out as S. Epiphanius declareth) & so the omitting to salute him, can proue no more, but that then he vvas not in Rome. but it proueth not so much neither, because the Apostle might for respect of his dignitie and other the Churches affaires, write vnto him special letters, and so had no cause to salute him in his common Epistle. [Subnote: Epiph. hær. 27.] Or hovv knovv they that this Epistle was not sent inclosed to S, Peter, to be deliuered by his meanes to the vvhole Church of the Romanes in some of their assemblies? it is very like it was recommended to some one principal man or other that is not here named: and tvventy causes there may be vnknovven to vs, why he saluted him not: but no cause vvhy our Aduersaries vpon such friuolous reasons should reproue an approued truth. For euen as wel might they say that S. Iohn vvas neuer at Ephesus, because S. Paul in his Epistle to the Ephesians doth not salute him. And plaine it is, that it is the Romane seate and faith of Peter, vvhich they (as all Herettkes before

[Page 423]
them) do feare and hate, and vvhich wil be their baue: and they knovv that there is no argument vvhich conuinceth in their conscience, that Peter vvas neuer at Rome. [Subnote: The Heretikes hatred of the Romane see.] Therfore to conclude, vve say to them in S. Augustines vvordes, Why call you the Apostolike chaire, the chaire of pestilence? [Subnote: li. 2. cont. lit. Petil. c. 55.] What hath the Church of Roma done against you, in vvhich S. Peter did sit, and from vvhich by nefarious furie you haue separated your selues?

[16] 16. Holy kisse. Hereof, and by the common vsage of the first Christians, vvho had special regard of vnitie and peace among them selues, and for signe and protestation thereof, kissed one an other, came our holy ceremonie of giuing the Pax, [Subnote: Orig. in 16. ad Ro.] or killing one an other in the Sacrifice of the blessed Masse. [Subnote: Kissing the Pax.]

[17] 17. To marke them. He carefully warneth them to take heede of seditions sovvers of Sectes and dissension in religion, and this euer to be their marke, if they should teach or moue them to any thing vvhich vvas not agreable to that vvhich they had learned at their conuersion: not bidding them to examine the case by the Scriptures, but by their first forme of faith and religion deliuered to them before they had or did read any booke of the nevv Testament. [Subnote: Against Sectmaisters hovv to examine our faith.]

[18] 18. But their ovvne belly. Hovvsoeuer Heretikes pretend in vvordes and external shew of their sheepes cote, in deede they seeke but after their ovvne profite and pleasure, & by the Apostles ovvne testimonie we be vvarranted so to iudge of them as of men that in deede haue no religion nor conscience. [Subnote: Heretikes giuen to voluptuousnes.]

[19] 19. Your obedience. Against Heretikes and their illusions, there is no better way then in simplicitie to cleaue vnto that vvhich hath bene taught before: for the vvhich the Romane obedience is much commended. See Annot. vpon the first chap. vers. 8.

1 Corinthians 11

Rheims Douai, 1582-1610

Biblical text

New Testament



Chap. XI.

Chap. XI.

[Note: The 5. part. Of his Traditions. ] He commendeth them for keeping his Traditions generally. 3 and in particular for this, that a man praied and prophecied bareheaded, a vvoman veiled, he bringeth many reasons. 17 About another, he reprehendeth the riche that at the Charitable supper supped vncharitably, 23 telling them that they receiued therfore vnvvorthely the B. Sacrament, and shevving them vvhat an heinous sinne that is, seeing it is our Lordes body and the representation of his death, as he by tradition had taught them.

1 Be ye folovvers of me, as I also of Christ.

2 And I praise you brethren, that in al things you be mindeful of me: and as I haue deliuered vnto you, you keepemy [Note: [c] In the greeke, Traditions, paradoseis. ] precepts.

3 And I vvil haue you knovv, that the head of euery man, is Christ: and the head of the vvoman, is the man: and the head of Christ, is God.

[Page 449]

4 Euery man praying or prophecying vvith his head couered: dishonesteth his head.

5 Buteuery vvoman praying or prophecying vvith her head not couered: dishonesteth her head: for it is al one as if she vvere made balde.

6 For if a vvoman be not couered, let her be polled. but if it be a foule thing for a vvoman to be polled or made balde: let her couer her head.

7 The man truely ought not to couer his head, because he is the image and glorie of God, but the vvoman is the glorie of the man.

8 For the man is not of the vvoman, but the vvoman of the man.

9 For [Note: Gen. 2, 21. ] the man vvas not created for the vvoman, but the vvoman for the man.

10 (Therfore ought the vvoman to haue povver vpon her head for the Angels.)

11 But yet neither the man vvithout the vvoman: nor the vvoman vvithout the man, in our Lord.

12 For as the vvoman is of the man, so also the man by the vvoman: but al things of God.

13 Your selues iudge: doth it become a vvoman not couered to pray vnto God?

14 Neither doth nature it self teache you, that a man in deede if he nourish his heare, it is an ignominie for him:

15 but if a vvoman nourish her heare, it is a glorie for her, because heare is giuen her for a veile?

16 But if any man seeme to be contentious, vve haue no suchcustome, nor the [Note: churches ] Chvrch of God.

17 And this I commaund: not praising it that you come together not to better, but to vvorse. [Note: The Epistle vpon Maundy Thursday. ]

18 First in deede vvhen you come together into the Church, I heare that there are schismes among you, and in part I beleeue it.

19 Forthere must be heresies also: that they also vvhich are approued, may be made manifest among you.

20 Vvhen you come therfore together in one,is it not novv to eateour Lordes supper.

21 For euery one taketh his ovvne supper before to eate. And one certes is an hungred, and an other is drunke.

22 Vvhy, haue you not houses to eate and drinke in? or contemne ye the Church of God: and confound them that haue not? Vvhat shal I say to you? praise I you in this? I do not praise you.

23 [Note: [a] The Epistle vpou Corpvs Christi day. ] For I receiued of our Lord that vvhich alsoI haue deliuered vnto you, [Note: The Apostles drift in al that he saith here of the Sacramet, is against vnvvorthy receiuing (as S. Augustine also noteth Ep. 113. c. 3.) and not to set out the vvhole order of ministratio, as the heretikes do ignoratly imagine. ] that our Lord Iesvsin the night that he vvas betraied,tookebread: [Note: Mat. 26, 26. Mr. 14, 22. Luc. 22, 19. ]

24 and giuing thankes brake, and said:Take ye & eate,THIS ISMY BODY VVHICH SHAL BE DELIVERED FOR YOV:this doe ye for

[Page 450]
the commemoration of me.
25 In like maner also the chalice after he had supped, saying, This chalice is the nevv testament in my blovd. this doe ye, as often as you shal drinke, for the comemoration of me.

26 For as often as you shal eate this bread, and drinke the chalice, you shal shevv the death of our Lord, vntil he come.

27 Therfore vvhosoeuer shal eate this bread, or drinke the chalice of our Lord vnvvorthily, he shal beguilty of the body and of the bloud of our Lord.

28 Butlet a man proue him self: and so, let him eate of that bread, and drinke of the chalice.

29 For he that eateth and drinketh vnvvorthily: eateth and drinketh iudgement to him self,not discerning the body of our Lord. +

30 Therfore are there among you many weake and feble, andmany sleepe.

31 But if vve didiudge our selues: vve should not be iudged.

32 But vvhiles vve are iudged, of our Lord vve are chastised: that vvith this world vve be not damned. +

33 Therfore my brethren, vvhen you come together to eate,expect one an other.

34 If any man be an hungred, let him eate at home: that you come not together vnto iudgement. And the restI vvil dispose, vvhen I come.


[2] 2. My precepts. Our Pastors and Prelates haue authoritie to commaund, and vve are bound to obey. And the Gouerners of the Church may take order and prescribe that vvhich is comely in euery state, as time and place require, though the things be not of the substance of our religion.

[5] 5. Euery vvoman. Vvhat gifts of God so euer vvomen haue, though supernatural, as some had in the Primitiue Church, yet they may not forget their vvomanly shamefastnes, but shevv them selues subiect and modest, and couer their heads vvith a veile.

[16] 16. Custome. If vvomen or other, to defend their disorder & malipertnes, dispute or alleage Scriptures and reasons, or require causes of their preachers vvhy & by vvhat authoritie they should be thus restrained in things indifferent, make them no other ansvver but this, This is the custome of the Church, this is our custome. [Subnote: The Custome of the Church, is a good answer against a vvranglers.] Vvhich is a goodly rule to represse the saucinesse of contentious ianglers, vvhich being out of al modestie and reason, neuer vvant vvordes and replies against the Church. Vvhich Church if it could then by prescription of tvventy or thirty yeres, and by the authority of one or tvvo of their first preachers, stoppe the mouthes of the seditious: vvhat should not the custome of fiftene hundred yeres, & the decrees of many hundred Pastors, gaine of reasonable, modest, and humble men?

[19] 19. There must be heresies Vvhen the Apostle saith, Heresies must be: He shevveth the euent, and not that God hath directly so appointed it as necessarie, for, that they be, it commeth of mans malice and free vvil: but that they be conuerted to the manifestation of the good and constant in faith & the Churches vnitie, that is Gods special vvorke of prouidence that vvorketh good of euil. [Subnote: That heresies shal come, and vvherfore.] And for that there should fall Heresies and Schismes, specially concerning the Article and vse of the B Sacrament of the Altar, vvhereof he novv beginneth to treate, it may make vs maruel the lesse, to see so great dssensions, Heresies, and Schismes of the vvicked and vveake in faith concerning the same. [Subnote: Vvhat comoditie vve may make of heresies.] Such things then vvil be, but vvo to him by vvhom scandals or Sectes do come. Let vs vse Heretikes, S. Augustine, not to that end to approue their errours, but that by defending the

[Page 451]
Catholike doctrine against their deceites, vve may be more vvatchful and vvary: because it is most truely vvritten. There must be heresies that the tried and approued may be manifested or discouered from the holovv hartes among you. Let vs vse this benefite of Gods prouidence, for Heretikes be made of such as vvould erre or be naught, though they vvere in the Church: but being out, they profite vs excedingly, not by teaching the truth vvhich they knovv not, but by stirring vp the carnal in the Church to seeke truth, and the spiritual Catholikes, to cleere the truth. for there be innumerable holy approued men in the Church, but they be not discerned from other among vs, nor manifest, so long as vve had rather sleepe in darknes of ignorance, then behold the light of truth. therfore many are raised out of their sleepe by Heretikes to see the day of God, and are glad thereof. August. c. 8. de vera relig.
[20] 20. Our Lordes supper. The Christians at or about the time of the Churches onely Sacrifice and their communicating thereof, kept great feastes: vvhich continued long, for that the reliefe of the poore vpon the common charges of the richer sort, and the charitie and vnitie of al sortes vvere much preserued thereby, for vvhich cause they vvere called agapai, that is, Charities, [Subnote: Coc. Gang. can. 11.] of the auncient Fathers, and vvere kept commonly in Church houses or porches adioyning, or in the body of the Church (vvhereof see Tertullian Apolog. c. 39. Clemens Alexand. S. Iustine, S. Augustine cont. Faust. li. 20 c. 20.) after the Sacrifice and Communion vvas ended, as S. Chrysostom ho. 27. in 1 Cor. in initio [Subnote: Conc Loadic. can. 27. 28.] iudgeth. [Subnote: Agapæ or suppers of charitie.] Those feastes S. Paul here calleth Coenas Dominicas, because they vvere made in the Churches vvhich then vvere called Dominicæ, that is, Our Lordes houses. The disorder therfore kept among the Corinthians in these Church-feastes of Charitie, the Apostle seeketh here to redresse, from the foule abuses expressed here in the text And as S. Ambrose in bunt locum, and most good authors novv thinke, this vvhich he calleth Dominicam coenam, is not meant of the B. Sacrament, as the circunstances also of the text do giue, namely, the reiecting of the poore, the rich mens priuate deuouring of al, not expecting one an other, glottony and drunkennesse in the same, vvhich can not agree to the holy Sacrament. [Subnote: Vvhether the Apostle meane by our Lord; supper, the B. Sacrament.] And therfore the Heretikes haue smal reason, vpon this place, to name the said holy Sacramet, rather, the Supper of the Lord, then after the maner of the primitiue Church, the Eucharist, Masse, or Liturgie. But by like they vvould bring it to the supper againe or Euening seruice, vvhen men be not fasting, the rather to take avvay the old estimation of the holines thereof.

[23] 23. I haue deliuered. As al other partes of religion vvere first deliuerd by preaching and vvord of mouth to euery Nation conuerted, so this holy order and vse of the B. Sacrament vvas by S. Paul first giuen vnto the Corinthians by tradition. [Subnote: Traditio vvithout vvriting.] Vnto vvhich as receiued of our Lord he reuoketh them by this Epistle, not putting in vvriting particularly al things pertaining to the order, vse, and institution, as he aftervvard saith: but repeating the summe and substance thereof, and leauing the residue to his returne. [Subnote: Whether the catholikes or Protestants doe more imitate Christs institution of the B. Sacrament.] But his vvordes and narration here vvritten vve vvil particularly prosecute, because the Heretikes make profession to folovv the same in their pretended reformation of the Masse.

[23] 23. In the night. First the Aduersaries may be here conuinced that al the circunstaces of time, person, & place vvhich in Christes action are noted, neede not to be imitated. As, that the Sacramet should be ministred at night, to men onely, to onely tvvelue, after or at supper, & such like: because (as S. Cyprian cp. 63. nu. 7. & S. Augustine ep. 118. c. 6. note) there vvere causes of those accidents in Christ that are not novv to be alleaged for vs. He instituted then this holy act: vve do not. he made his Apostles Priests, that is to say, gaue them commission to do and minister the same: vve do not. he vvould haue this the last act of his life & vvithin the bounds of his Passion: it is not so vvith vs. he vvould eate and make an end of the Paschal to accomplish the old Lavv: that can not be in our action. therfore he must needes doe it after supper and at night: vve may not do so. he excluded al vvomen, al the rest of his Disciples, allay men: vve inuite al faithful, men & vvomen. [Subnote: Al circunstaces in our Sauiours action about the B. Sacramet, neede not be imitated.] In Many circunstances then, neither vve may imitate Christes first action, nor the Heretikes as yet do: though they seeme to encline by abandoning other names sauing this (calling it Supper) to haue it at night and after meate. though (as is before noted) they haue no iust cause to call it so vpon Christ, fact, seeing the Euangelists do plainely shevv [Subnote: Io. 13, 2.] that the Sacrament vvas instituted after Supper, as the Apostle him self here recordeth of the later part in expresse speach. And most men thinke, a long sermon and the vvashing of the Apostles feete came betvvene, yea and that the supper vvas quite finished, & grace said. But in al these and such like things, the Catholike Church onely, by Christes Spirit can tel, vvhich things are imitable, vvhich not, in al his actions.

[23] 23. Tooke. Christ tooke bread into his hands, applying this ceremonie, action, and benediction to it, and did blesse the very element, vsed povver and actiue vvord vpon it, [Subnote: Luc, 9, 16.] as he did ouer the bread and fishes vvhich he multiplied: and so doth the Church of God: and so do not the Protestants, if they folovv their ovvne booke and doctrine, but they let the bread & cuppe stand a loose, and occupie Christes vvordes by vvay of report and narration, applying them not at al to the matter proposed to be occupied: and therfore hovvsoeuer the simple people be deluded by the rehersal of the same vvordes vvhich Christ vsed, yet consecration, benediction, or sanctification of bread and vvine they prosesse they make none at al. [Subnote: The Protestants imitate not Christ in blessing the bread and vvine.] At the first alteration of religion, there vvas a figure of the Crosse at this vvord, He blessed: and at the vvorde, He tooke, there vvas glosse or

[Page 452]
rubrike that appointed the Minister to imitate Christs action, and to take the bread into his hands: aftervvard that vvas reformed and Christes action abolished, and his blessing of bread turned to thankes giuing to God.
[23] 23. Bread. Christ made the holy Sacrament of vnleauened bread, and al the Latin Church imitateth him in the same, as a thing much more agreable to the signification both in it self and in our liues, then the leauen. [Subnote: They imitate him not in vnleauened bread, and mingling water with wine.] Yet our Aduersaries neither folovv Christ, S. Paul, nor the vvest Church, in the same: but rather purposely make choise of that kind that is in it self more vnseemely, and to the first institution lesse agreable. In the other part of the Sacrament they contemne Christ and his Church much more impudently and damnably. For Christ and al the Apostles and al Catholike Churches in the vvorld haue euer mixed their wine vvith water, for great mysterie and signification, specially for that water gushed together vvith bloud out of our Lordes side. This our Lord did (saith S. Cyprian Ep. 63 ad Cecilium. nu. 4, 7.) and none rightly offereth, that folovveth not him therein. Thus Irenæus (li. 5. c. 1.) Iustine (Apolog. 2. in fine.) and al the Fathers testifie the Primitiue Church did, and in this sort it is done in al the Masses of the Greekes, S. Iames, S. Basils, S. Chrisostoms: and yet our Protestants pretending to reduce al to Christ, vvil not doe as he did, and al the Apostles and Churches that euer vvere.

[24] 24. This is. These vvordes being set dovvne, not in the person of the Euangelistes or Apostles, but expressed as in Christes ovvne person, to be said ouer the bread, and the like ouer the vvine, are the formes of the Sacrament and vvordes of consecration: neither is it a Sacrament but (as S. Angustine saith) vvhen the vvordes come, that is to say, actiuely and presently be applied to the elements of the same. [Subnote: The vvordes of consecration, to be said ouer the bread and vvine. the vvhich the Protestants do not.] [Subnote: tract. 80 in Io.] Therfore the Protestants neuer applying these vvordes more then the vvhole narration of the institution, nor reciting the vvhole (as is said) othervvise then in historical maner, (as if one vvould minister Baptisme & neuer apply the wordes of the Sacramet to the childe, but onely read Christes speaches of the same) make no Sacrament at al. And that these proper vvordes be the onely forme of this Sacrament, and so to be spoken ouer or vpon the bread and vvine, S. Ambrose plainly and precisely vvriteth, recording hovv far the Euangelists narratiue vvordes do goe, and vvhere Christes ovvne peculiar mystical vvordes of consecration begin: and so the rest of the fathers. Ambro. li, 4. de Sacr. c. 4. & c. 9. de init. Myster. Iusti. Apolog. 2. in fine. Cypr. de Can. Do. nu. 1. 2. Aug. Ser. 28. de verb. Do. sec. Mat. Tertul. li. 4. cont. Marc. Chrys. ho. 2. in 2. ad Tim. in fine. & ho. de prodit. Iudæ to. 3. Grego. Nyss. in orat. Catech. Damasc. li. 4. c. 14.

[24] 24. My body. Vvhen the vvordes of Consecration be by tho said impietie of the Protestants, thus remoued from the elements: no maruel if Christes holy body and bloud be not there, or that it is novv no more a Sacrament, but common bread and vvine. [Subnote: The Protestants haue taken away the B. Sacrament altogether.] So they that vniustly charge the Cath. Church vvith defrauding the people of one peece of the Sacramet, haue in very deede left no part nor spice of Sacrament, neither folovving Christ, as they pretend, nor S. Paul, nor any Euangelist, but their owne detestable Secte, hauing boldly defaced the vvhole institution, not in any accidental indifferent circunstances, but in the very substance and al. The right name is gone, the due elements both gone, no blessing or consecration, or other action ouer them, the formes be gone: and consequently the body and bloud, the Sacrament and the Sacrifice.

[24] 24. This doe. By these vvordes, authoritie and povver is giuen to the Apostles, and by the like, in the Sacrament of Orders, to al lavvful Priests onely. [Subnote: The povver to consecrate giuen to Priests onely.] No maruel then that the nevv heretical Ministers being lay men, giue the people nothing but bare bread and vvine, profane, naked, and natural elements void of Sacrament and al grace. See the Annotation vpon S. Luke chap. 22, 19.

[24] 24. Take and eate. This pertaineth to the receiuing of those things vvhich by consecration are present and sacrificed before: as vvhen the people or Priests in the old Lavv did eate the hostes offered or part thereof, they vvere made partakers of the sacrifice done to God before. And this is not the substance, or being, or making of the Sacrament or Sacrifice of Christes body and bloud: but it is the vse and application to the receiuer, of the things vvhich vvere made and offered to God before. [Subnote: The Sacramet consisteth not in the receiuing.] There is a difference betvvixt the making of a medecine or the substance and ingredience of it, and the taking of it. Novv the receiuing being but a consequence or one of the endes vvhy the Sacrament vvas made, & the meane to apply it vnto vs: the Aduersaries vnlearnedly make it al and some, ad therfore improperly name the vvhole Sacrament and ministration thereof, by calling it the Communion. [Subnote: Vvhy the Protestants call it the Communion.] Vvhich name they giue also rather then any other, to make the ignorant beleeue that many must communicate together: as though it vvere so called for that it is common to many. By which collusion they take avvay the receiuing of the Priest alone, of the sicke alone, of reseruing the consecrated Host and the vvhole Sacrament. [Subnote: Communion, vvhich is a part of the Masse, what it signifieth.] Against vvhich deceite, knovv that this part of the Masse is not called Communio, for that many should concurre together alwaies in the external Sacrament: but for that vve do communicate

[Page 453]
or ioyne in vnitie and perfect felovvship of one body, vvith al Christian men in the vvorld, vvith al (vve say) that eate it through the vvhole Church, and not vvith them onely vvhich eate vvith vs at one time. And this fellovvship riseth of that, that vve be, euery time we receiue either alone or vvith companie, partakers of that one body vvhich is receiued through out al the vvorld. It is called comunion (saith S. Damascene) & so in deede it is, for that by it vve communicate vvith Christ & be partakers of his flesh & diuinitie & by it doe cocommunicate and are vnited one vvith an other. onely let vs take heede that vve de not participat vvith heretikes. [Subnote: li. 4. c. 14. de orthod. fide.] And vvhen the Apostle saith, that al be one bread and one body that are partakers of one Bread, he meaneth not of them onely that communicate at one time and place: but that al be so, that communicate in vnitie through the whole Church. The the name Communion is as ignorantly vsed of them, as the name of Supper.
[26] 26. You shal shevv. Vpon this vvord the Heretikes fondly ground their false supposition, that this Sacrament can not rightly be ministred or made vvithout a sermon of the death of Christ: and that this and other Sacraments in the Church, be not profitable, when they be ministred in a strange language. [Subnote: Hovv Christs death is shewed by the B. Sacrament it self, vvithout sermon or othervvise.] As though the grace, force, operation, & actiuitie, together vvith the instruction and representation of the things which they signifie, vvere not in the very substance, matter, forme, vse, and vvorke it self of euery of the Sacraments: and as though preaching vvere not one vvay to shevv Christes Passion, and the Sacraments an other vvay: namely this Sacrament, conteining in the very kindes of the elements and the action, a most liuely representation of Christes death. As vvisely might they say that neither Abels sacrifice nor the Paschal lambe could signifie Christes death vvithout a Sermon.

[27] 27. Guilty of the body. First herevpon marke vvel, that il men receiue the body and bloud of Christ, be they infidels or il liuers. [Subnote: The vvicked receiue the body & bloud. The real presence is proued by the heinous offese of vnvvorthy receiuing.] For in this case they could not be guilty of that vvhich they receiue not. Secondly, that it could not be so heinous an offense for any man to receiue a peece of bread or a cuppe of vvine, though they vvere a true Sacrament. For it is a deadly sinne to receiue any Sacramet with vvil & intentio to cotinevv in sinne, or vvithout repentance of former sinnes: but yet by the vnvvorthy receiuing of no other Sacrament is man guilty of Christes body and bloud, but here, vvhere the vnvvorthy (as S. Chrysostom saith) doth vilany to Christes ovvne person, as the Ievves or Gentiles did, that crucified it. Chrys. ho. de non contemn. Ec. &c. Ho. 60 & 61 ad po. Antioch. Vvhich inuincibly proueth against the Heretikes that Christ is really present.

[28] 28. Let him proue. A man must examine his life diligently vvhether ho be in any mortal sinne, and must confesse him self of euery offense vvhich he knovveth or feareth to be deadly, before he presume to come to the holy Sacrament. [Subnote: Confessio before receiuing the B. Sacrament.] For so the Apostles doctrine here, vvith the continual custom of the Cath. Church and the Fathers example, binde him to doe. Cypr. de laps. nu. 7. Aug. Eccl. dog. c. 53.

[29] 29. Not discerning the body. That is, because he putteth no difference nor distinction betvvixt this high meate and others. and therfore S. Augustine saith ep. 118 c. 3. that it is he that the Apostle saith shal be damned, that doth not by singular veneration or adoration make a difference betvvene this meate and al others. [Subnote: Adoration of the B. Sacrament.] And againe in Psal. 98. No man eateth it before he adore it. And S. Ambrose li. 3, c. 12 de Sp. San. We adore the flesh of Christ in the Mysteries. S. Chrysostome ho. 24 in 1 Cor. We adore him on the altar, as the Sages did in the manger. S. Nazianzene in Epitaph. Gorgoniæ. My sister called on him vvhich is vvorshipped vpon the altar. Theodorete Dial. 2 Inconf. The Mystical tokens be adored. S. Denys, this Apostles scholer, made solemne inuocation of the Sacrament after Consecration. Ecclesiast. Hier. c. 3 part. 3 in princip. and before the receiuing, the vvhole Church of God crieth vpon it, [Subnote: See the Annot. Mat. 8, 8.] Domine non sum dignus, Deus propitius esto mihi peccatori. Lambe of God that takest avvay the sinnes of the vvorld, haue mercie on vs. And for better discerning of this diuine meate, vve are called from common profane houses to Gods Church: for this, vve are forbidden to make it in vulgar. apparel, and are appointed sacred solemne vestiments. [Subnote: The manifold honour and discerning of Christes body in the Cath. Church.] Hiero. in Epitaph. Nepot. & li. 2 adu. Pelag. c. 9. Paulinus ep. 12 ad Seuer. Io. Diaco. in vit. D. Greg. li. 3, c. 59. For this, is the halovving of Corporals and Chalices; Ambr. 2 Off. c. 28. Nazianz. Orat. ad Arianos: Optatus li. 6 in initio. for this, profane tables are remoued and altars consecrated: August. Ser de temp. 255. for this, the very Priests them selues are honorable, chast, sacred. Hiern. ep. 1 ad Heliodorum c. 7. Li 1 adu. Iouin. c 19. Ambros. in I Tim. 3. for this, the people is forbidden to touch it vvith comon hands. Nazianz orat. ad Arianos in initio. for this, great care and solicitude is taken that no part of either kinde fall to the ground, Cyril. Hieros. mystag. 5 in fine. Orig. ho. 13 in c. 25 Exod. for this, sacred prouision is made that if any hosts or parts of the Sacrament do remaine vnreceiued, they be most religiously reserued vvith al honour and diligence possible. and for this, examination of consciences, confession, continencie, & (as S. Augustine saith) receiuing it fasting. [Subnote: ep. 118, c. 6.] Thus do vve Catholikes and the Church of God discerne the holy Body and bloud by S. Paules rule, not onely from your profane bread and vvine (vvhich not by any secrete abuse of your Curats or Clerkes, but by the very order of your booke, the Minister, if any remaine after your Communion, may take home vvith him to his ovvne vse

[Page 454]
and therfore is no more holy by your ovvne iudgement then the rest of his meates) but from al other either vulgar or sanctified meates, as [Subnote: Aug. de pec. merit. li. 2. c. 26. Ep. Iude.] the Catechumens bread, and our vsual holy bread. [Subnote: The Profane bread of the Protestants.] If al this be plaine and true, and you haue nothing agreable to the Apostles nor Christes institution, but al cleane contrarie: then imperet vobis Deus and confound you for not discerning his holy Body, and for conculcating the bloud of the nevv Testament. [Subnote: Holy bread.]
[30] 30. Many sleepe. Vve see here by this, it is a fearful case and crime to defile by sinne (as much as in vs lieth) the body of Christ in the Sacrament. seeing God strooke many to death for it in the Primitiue Church, and punished others by greuous sicknes. [Subnote: Vnvvorthie receiuing.] No maruel that so many strange diseases and deaths fall vpon vs novv in the vvorld.

[31] 31. Iudge your selues. Vve may note here that it is not ynough, onely to sinne no more, or to repent lightly of that vvhich is past: but that vve should punish our selues according to the vveight of the faults past and forgiuen: and also that God vvil punish vs by temporal scourges in this life or the next, if vve do not make our selues very cleane before vve come to receiue his holy Sacrament. vvhose heauy hands vve may escape by punishing our selues by fasting and other penance. [Subnote: Penance and satisfaction.]

[33] 33. Expect one an other. Returning novv to their former fault and disorder for the vvhich he tooke this occasion to talke of the holy Sacrament, and hovv great a fault it is to come vnvvorthely to it: he exhorteth them to keepe their said suppers or feastes in vnitie, peace, and sobrietie, the riche expecting the poore &c.

[34] 34. I vvil dispose. Many particular orders & decrees, moe then be here or in any other booke of the nevv Testament expresly vvritten, did the Apostles, as we see here, and namely S. Paul to the Corinthians, set dovvne by tradition, vvhich our vvhole ministration of the Masse is agreable vnto, as the substance of the Sacrifice and Sacrament is by the premisses proued to be most consonant: Caluins supper and Communion in al points vvholy repugnant to the same. [Subnote: The Masse is agreable to the Apostles vse and tradition: the Communion is not.] And that it agreeth not to these other not vvritte traditions, they easely confesse. The [Subnote: Aug. ep. 118 c. 6.] Apostles deliuered vnto the Church to take it onely fasting: they care not for it. The Apostles taught the Church to consecrate by the vvordes and the signe of the Crosse, vvithout vvhich (saith S. Augustine tract. in Io. 118. Ser. 15. in append. Chrys. ho. 55 in 16 Mat.) no Sacrament is rightly perfited: the Protestants haue take it avvay. The Apostles taught the Church to keepe [Subnote: Aug. tract 34 in Io. & Chrys. ho. 31 in Act.] a Memorie or inuocatio of Saincts in this Sacrifice: the Caluinists haue none. The Apostles decreed that in this Sacrifice there should be special praiers for the dead, Chrys. ho. 3 in ep. ad Philip. Aug. de cur. pro mort. c. 1: they haue none. Likewise that water should be mixed with the wine, and so forth. See Annot. in c. 11, v. 21. Bread. Therfore if Caluin had made his new administration according to all the Apostles written wordes, yet not knovving how many things beside, the Apostle had to prescribe in these wordes, Catera cum venero disponam (the rest I wil dispose, when I come) he could not haue satisfied any wise man in his new chaunge. But now seeing they are fallen to so palpable blindnes, that their doing is directly opposite to the very Scripture also, which they pretend to folow onely, and haue quite destroied both the name, substance, and al good accidents of Christes principal Sacrament, we trust al the world wil see their folly and impudencie.

1 Timothy 2

Rheims Douai, 1582-1610

Biblical text

New Testament



Chap. II.

Chap. II.

By his Apostolike authoritie he appointeth publike praiers to be made for al me vvithout exception. 8 also men to pray in al places: 9 and vvomen also in semely attire, 11 to learne of men, and not to be teachers in any vvise, but to seeke saluation by that vvhich to them belongeth.

1 I Desire therfore first of al things that obsecrations, praiers, postulations, thankesgeuings be made for al men,

2 [Note: Euen for heathen kings & Emperours by vvhom the Church suffereth persecution: much more for al faithful Princes & powers and people both spiritual and temporal, for vvhom as members of Christes body, and therfore ioyning in praier & oblation vvith the ministers of the Church, the Priestes more properly and particularly offer the holy Sacrifice. See S. Augustine de orig. anima li. 1. c. 9. ] for kings and al that are in preeminence: that vve may leade a quiet and a peaceable life in al pietie and chastitie.

3 For this is good and acceptable before our Sauiour God,

[Page 567]

4 vvho vvill al men to be saued, and to come to the knovvledge of the truth,

5 For there is one God, one also mediatour of God and men, man Christ Iesvs:

6 vvho gaue him self a redemption for al, vvhose testimonie in due times is cofirmed.

7 [Note: 2. Tim. 1, 11. ] vvherein I am appointed a preacher & an Apostle (I say the truth, I lie not) doctor of the Gentiles in faith and truth.

8 I vvil therfore that men pray in euery place: lifting vp pure handes, vvithout anger and altercation.

9 In like maner [Note: 1. Pet. 3, 3. ] vvomen also in comely attire: vvith demurenesse and sobrietie adorning them selues, not in plaited heare, or gold, or pretious stones, or gorgeous apparel,

10 but that vvhich becometh vvomen professing pietie by good vvorkes.

11 Let a vvoman learne in silence, vvith al subiection.

12 But [Note: 1. Cor. 14, 34. ] to teach I permit not vnto a vvoman, nor to haue dominion ouer the man: but to be in silece.

13 For [Note: Gen. 1, 27. 3, 6. ] Adam vvas formed first: then Eue.

14 and Adam vvas not seduced: but the vvoman being seduced, vvas in preuarication.

15 Yet she shal be saued by generation of children: if [Note: she ] they continue in faith & loue and sanctification vvith sobrietie.



1. Obsecrations. This order of the Apostle S. Augustine (ep. 59) findeth to be fulfilled specially in the holy celebration of the Masse, vvhich hath al these kindes, expressed here in foure diuers vvordes pertaining to foure sortes of praiers. the difference vvhereof he exactly seeketh out of the proper signification and difference of the Greeke vvordes. [Subnote: The praiers & petitions in the Masse, deduced out of the Apostles vvordes by S. Augustine, & other fathers.] And he teacheth vs that the first kind of praiers vvhich here be called, obsecrations, [Subnote: deeseis.] are those that the Priest saith before the consecration: that the second called, Praiers, [Subnote: proseuxai.] be al those vvhich are said in and after the Consecration, & about the Receiuing, including specially the Pater noster, vvherewith the vvhole Church (saith he) in maner endeth that part. as S. Hierom also affirmeth, that Christ taught his Apostles to vse the Pater noster in the Masse. Sic docuit, & c. So taught he his Apostles, that daily in the Sacrifice of his body the faithful should be bold to say, Pater noster &c. Li. 3 cont. Pelag. cap. 5. [Subnote: Pater noster in the Masse.] Where he alludeth to the very vvordes novv vsed in the preface to the said Pater noster in the said Sacrifice, audemus dicere, Pater noster. The third sort called here in the text, Postulatios, [Subnote: enteucheis.] be those vvhich are vsed after the Comunion, as it vvere for dimissing of the people vvith benediction, that is, vvith the Bishops or Priests blessing. Finally the last kinde, vvhich is Thankes-giuings, [Subnote: euxariziai.] concludeth al, [Subnote: Theoph. in hunc loc.] vvhen the Priest and people giue thankes to God for so great a mysterie then offered and receiued. Thus the said holy father handleth this text ep. 59 to Paulinus.

S. Epiphanius also insinuateth these vvordes of the Apostle to pertaine to the Liturgie or Masse, vvhen he thus vvriteth to Iohn Bishop of Hierusalem. Vvhen vve accomplish our praiers after the rite of the holy Mysteries, vve pray both for al others, and for thee also. ep. 60 c. 2 ad Io. Hierosolym. apud Hieronymum. [Subnote: Praier in the Masse for kings and other.] And most of the other fathers expoud the foresaid vvordes, of publike praiers made by the Priest, vvhich are said in al Liturgies or Masses both Greeke and Latin, for the good estate of al that be in high dignitie, as kings and others. See S. Chrys. ho. 6. in 1 Tim. & S. Ambr. in hunc loc. Prosper de vocat. li. 1. c. 4. So exactly doth the practise of the Church agree vvith the Precepts of the Apostle and the Scriptures, and so profoudly do the holy fathers seeke out the proper sense of the Scriptures, vvhich our Protestants do so prophanely, popularely, and lightly skimme ouer, that they can neither see nor endure the truth.

[Page 568]

[4] 4 Vvho vvil al men The perishing or damnation of men must not be imputed to God, vvho delighteth not in any mans perdition, but hath prouided a general medicine & redemption to saue al from perishing that vvil accept it, or that haue it applied vnto them by his Sacraments and other meanes by him ordained, and so vvould haue al saued by his conditional vvil and ordinance: that is, if men vvil them selues, by accepting, doing, or hauing done vnto them al things requisite by Gods lavv. for God vseth not his absolute vvil or povver tovvardes al in this case. [Subnote: God vvil no mans perditio but the saluation of al.] But he that list see the manifold senses (al good and true) that these vvordes may beare, let him see S. Augustine, Ad articul. sibi falso impos. resp. 2. to. 7. Ench. c. 103. Ep. 107. De cor. & grat. c. 15, and S. Damascene li. 2 de orthod. fide c. 29.


5 One mediator. The Protestants are to peuish and pitifully blind, that charge the Catholike Church & Catholikes, vvith making moe Mediators then one, vvhich is Christ our Sauiour, in that they desire the Saincts to pray for them, or to be their patrones and intercessors before God. Vve tel them therfore that they vnderstand not vvhat it is to be a Mediator, in this sense that S. Paul taketh the vvord, and in vvhich it is properly and onely attributed to Christ. [Subnote: Hovv there is but one Mediator, Christ: and vvhat it is to be such a Mediator.] For, to be thus a Mediator, is, [Subnote: Aug. li. 9. de Ciu. cap. 15. De fid. ad Pet. c. 2.] by nature to be truely both God and man, to be that one eternal Priest and Redeemer, vvhich by his sacrifice and death vpon the Crosse hath reconciled vs to God, and paied his bloud as a full and sufficient raunsom for al our sinnes, him self vvithout neede of any redemption, neuer subiect to possibilitie of sinning: againe, to be the singular Aduocat and Patrone of mankind, that by him self alone and by his ovvne merites procureth al grace & mercie to mankind in the sight of his Father, none making any intercession for him, nor geuing any grace or force to his praiers, but he to al: none asking or obtaining either grace in this life, or glorie in the next, but by him. In this sort then (as S. Augustine truely saith, Cont. ep. Parm. li. 2. c. 8.) neither Peter nor Paul, no nor our B. Lady, nor any creature vvhatsoeuer, can be our Mediator. The aduersaries thinke to basely of Christes mediation, if they imagine this to be his onely prerogatiue, to pray for vs, or that vve make the saincts our Mediators in that sort as Christ is, vvhen vve desire them to pray for vs. vvhich is so far inferior to the singular mediation of him, that no Catholike euer can or dare thinke or speake so basely vnto him, as to desire him to pray for vs: but vve say, Lord haue mercie vpo vs, Christ haue mercie vpon vs: [Subnote: Kyrie eleison. Christe eleison.] & not, Christ pray for vs, as vve say to our Ladie and the rest. [Subnote: The different maner of praying to Christ, and to Saincts.] Therfore to inuocate Saincts in that sort as the Catholike Church doth, can not make them our Mediators as Christ is, vvhom vve must not inuocate in that sort. And as vvel make vve the faithful yet liuing, our Mediators (by the Aduersaries arguments) vvhen vve desire their praiers, as the departed Saincts.

But novv touching the vvord Mediator, though in that singular sense proper to our Sauiour, it agreeth to no mere creature in heauen or earth, yet taken in more large and common sort by the vse of Scriptures, doctors, and vulgar speach, not onely the Saincts, but good men liuing, that pray for vs and help vs in the vvay of saluation, may and are rightly called Mediators. [Subnote: Hovv there be many mediators, as there be many sauiours, and redeemers, eue in the Scriptures.] As S. Cyril li. 12 Thesaur. c. 10 proueth, that Moyses according to the Scriptures and Ieremie and the Apostles and others be Mediators. Read his ovvne wordes, for they plainely refute al the Aduersaries cauillations in this case. And if the name of [Subnote: Iud. 3, 9. 2 Esd. 9, 27. Act. 7, 35.] sauiour and redeemer be in the Scriptures giuen to men, vvithout derogation to him that is in a more excellent and incomparable maner the onely Sauiour of the vvorld: vvhat can they say, vvhy there may not be many Mediators, in an inferior degree to the onely and singular Mediator? S. Bernard saith, Opus est mediatore ad Mediatorem Christum, nec alter nobis vrilior quam Maria. that is, We haue neede of a mediator to Christ the Mediator, and there is none more for our profite then our Ladie. Bernard. Ser, qui incipit, Signum magnum apparuit &c. post Ser. 5 de Assumpt. S. Basil also in the same sense, vvriting to Iulian the Apostata, desireth the mediation of our Ladie, of the Apostles, Prophets, and Martyrs, for procuring of Gods mercie and remission of his sinnes. His vvordes are cited in Conc. Nic. 2. act. 4. pag. 110 & 111. Thus did and thus beleeued al the holy fathers, most agreably to the Scriptures, and thus must al the children of the Church do, be the Aduersaries neuer so importunate and vvilfully blinde in these matters.

[12] 12. I permit not. In times of licentiousnes, libertie, and heresie, vvomen are much giuen to reading, disputing, chatting, and iangling of the holy Scriptures, yea and to teach also if they might be permitted. but S. Paul vtterly forbiddeth it, and the [Subnote: S. Chrys. Ho. 9. in 1. Tim.] Greeke Doctors vpon this place note that the vvoman taught but once, that vvas vvhen after her reasoning vvith Satan, she persuaded her husband to transgression, and so she vndid al mankind. [Subnote: Women great talkers of Scripture, and promoters of heresie.] And in the Ecclesiastical vvriters vve find that vvomen haue been great promoters of euery sort of heresie (vvhereof see a notable discourse in S. Hierom ep. ad Ctesiph. cont. Pelag. c. 2.) vvhich they vvould not haue done, if they had according to the Apostles rule, folovved pietie and good vvorkes, and liued in silence and subiection to their hnsbands.


Post a Comment

Links to this post:

Create a Link

Subscribe to Post Comments [Atom]

<< Home